Impact on the links of the mastopathy pathogenesis: a view on the pathological cascade correction




dyshormonal diseases of breast, thyroid gland, mammary gland, treatment, Tazalok


Background. Dyshormonal diseases of the breast (DDB) are a mirror of gynecological problems and pathological conditions of the thyroid gland (TG). The herbal non-hormonal drug Tazalok, which has hormone-regulating, anti-estrogenic, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, sedative and tonic effects, was chosen as a drug for the treatment of various clinical and morphological forms of DDB.

Objectives of the study: to investigate the possibilities of optimizing the DDB treatment and to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoselective therapy with Tazalok on various pathogenic links of mastopathy, taking into account the role of the TG in the pathogenesis of DDB.

Materials and methods. The study included 140 women of reproductive age with DDB, who were divided into 4 groups depending on the morphological forms of DDB, 35 women in each: I group – fibrocystic mastopathy; group II – the predominance of the cystic component, solitary cysts of the breast; III group – predominance of the fibrous component, with expansion of the milk ducts; group IV – mastodynia without organic changes in the breast. Patients received Tazalok 45 drops twice a day for 3 months. The level of sex steroids and thyroid hormones was determined before and after treatment, an ultrasound of the breast and TG was performed, and the dynamics of the pain syndrome were evaluated using a color analog scale.

Results. A decrease in the level of estradiol to reference norms, an increase in follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, progesterone, elimination of insufficiency of the luteal phase and restoration of ovulation were noted. The ratio of estradiol/progesterone in the study groups before the start of therapy was 1.6–4.5, after treatment it was 0.12–0.08, which indicates the disappearance of hyperestrogeny, as one of the main factors of DDB. The level of prolactin decreased from 1.6 to 2.0 times compare to the indicators before therapy. Thyroid function indicators improved, morphological signs of pathological changes in the TG and breast decreased, and the level of hormones normalized.

Conclusions. Monotherapy with Tazalok is a highly effective method of treating DDB, which results in functional and organic changes in the breast, TG, reduction of pain syndrome and echographic signs of the disease.

Author Biographies

V.V. Bobritska, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv

MD, associate professor, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Oncogynecology and Endoscopy Department

V.S. Strakhovetsky, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv

MD, professor, head of the Obstetrics, Gynecology, Oncogynecology and Endoscopy Department

O.V. Golovina, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv

MD, assistant, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Oncogynecology and Endoscopy Department

T.O. Kozub, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv

MD, associate professor, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Oncogynecology and Endoscopy Department


  1. Vdovichenko YP, Gladenko SE. Disorders of menstrual function in women with diffuse dysplasia of the mammary glands. Women’s health. 2019. 3(139):51–86
  2. Mammen JSR, Cappola AR. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Women. JAMA. 2021 Jun 15;325(23):2392–3. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.22196.
  3. Salamat F, Niakan B, Keshtkar A, et al. Subtypes of Benign Breast Disease as a Risk Factor of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analyses. Iran J Med Sci. 2018 Jul;43 (4):355–64.
  4. Han M, Wang Y, Jin Y, et al. Benign thyroid disease and the risk of breast cancer: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Oct 12;13:984593. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2022.984593.
  5. Accurso A, Della Corte G.A., Rocco N., et al. Unusual breast lesion mimicking cancer: diabetic mastopathy. Int J Surg. 2014;12 Suppl 1:S79–82. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.05.048.
  6. Guzik P, Gęca T, Topolewski P, et al. Diabetic Mastopathy. Review of Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Options. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Dec 31;19(1):448. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19010448
  7. Miura K, Teruya C, Hatsuko N, Ogura H. Autoantibody with Cross-Reactivity between Insulin and Ductal Cells May Cause Diabetic Mastopathy: A Case Study. Case Rep Med. 2012;2012: 569040. DOI: 10.1155/2012/569040.
  8. Chen XX, Shao SJ, Wan H. Diabetic mastopathy in an elderly woman misdiagnosed as breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature. World J. Clin. Cases. 2021 May 16;9(14):3458– 65. DOI: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i14.3458
  9. Naeem M, Zulfiqar M, Ballard DH, et al. «The unusual suspects»-Mammographic, sonographic, and histopathologic appearance of atypical breast masses. Clin Imaging. 2020 Oct; 66:111–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.04.039.
  10. Boif EL, Sprague BL, Carr FE. A Linkage Between Thyroid and Breast Cancer: A Common Etiology? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019;28(4):643–9. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0877.
  11. Lu M, Liu H, Zheng B, et al. Links between Breast and Thyroid Cancer: Hormones, Genetic Susceptibility and Medical Intervention. Cancers 2022, 14(20), 5117. DOI: 10.3390/cancers14205117
  12. Søgaard M, Farkas DK, Ehrenstein V, Sorensen HT. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk: A nationwide cohort study. Europ J of Endocr. 2016; 174(4):409–14. DOI: 10.1530/EJE-15-0989
  13. Bach L, Kostev K, Schiffmann L, Kalder M. Association between thyroid gland diseases and breast cancer: a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2020;182(1):207–13. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-020-05675-6.
  14. Dong L, Lu J, Zhao B, et al. Review of the possible association between thyroid and breast carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol (2018) 16(1):1–7. DOI: 10.1186/s12957-018-1436-0
  15. Landucci E, Laurino A, Cinci L, et al. Thyroid Hormone, Thyroid Hormone Metabolites and Mast Cells: A Less Explored Issue. Front Cell Neurosci. 2019 Mar 29;13:79. DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2019.00079.
  16. Dubenko OD. The state of the thyroid and mammary glands in women with secondary infertility and early reproductive losses in the anamnesis Endocrine Gynecology 2015.1(65):109–15
  17. Marinov B, Andreeva A, Pandurska A. Mastodynia. Premenstrual syndrome. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2014;53(6):36–40.
  18. Grullon S, Bechmann S. Mastodynia. [Internet] National center of Biotechnology information. Start Pearls. 2023. June 5. Available from:
  19. Pankiv VI. The influence of thyroid disorders upon the female reproductive function. Modern possibilities of phytotherapy. Reproductive endocrinology 2016.1(27):52–7.
  20. Tazalok - instructions, application, analogues of the drug. [Internet]. Available from:
  21. Katanić J, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, et al. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of Filipendula vulgaris Moench extracts. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Dec;122:151–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.001. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
  22. Farzaei MH, Abbasabadi Z, Ardekani MR, et al. Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities. J Tradit Chin Med. 2013. Dec;33(6):815– 26. DOI: 10.1016/s0254-6272(14)60018-2.
  23. Punoševac M, Radović Selgrad J, Leković A, Kundaković T. A review of botanical characteristics, chemical composition, pharmacological activity and use of parsley.2021.Arhiv za farmaciju. 71(3):177–196. DOI: 10.5937/arhfarm71-30800
  24. Kooti W, Daraei N. A Review of the Antioxidant Activity of Celery (Apium graveolens L). J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Oct;22(4): 1029–1034. DOI: 10.1177/2156587217717415
  25. Li P, Jia J, Zhang D, et al. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of a flavonoid isolated from celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce). [Internet]. Food Funct. 2014;5:50–60. Available from:
  26. Garna SV, Vladimirova IM, Burd NB, et al, editors. Modern phytotherapy: teaching. мanual. Kharkiv: Madrid Printing House; 2016. 580 p.
  27. Podmarennik: medicinal properties and contraindications. [Internet]. 2017. Available from:
  28. Kuang W, Zhang X, Lan Z. Flavonoids extracted from Linaria vulgaris protect against hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by western-type diet in mice. Arch Pharm Res. 2018 Dec;41(12):1190–8. DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0941-y.
  29. Cheriet T, Mancini I, Seghiri R, et al. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2015; 29(17):1589–613. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.999243.
  30. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Calendula. 2021. Oct 18. Available from:
  31. Carruters HR, Morris J, Tarrier N, Whorwell PJ. The Manchester Color Wheel: Development of a novel way of identifying color choice and its validation in healthy, anxious and depressed individuals. BMC Medical Resaech Metodology. 2010.10(1):12 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-12
  32. Malherbe K, Khan M, Fatima S. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. 2023 Aug 8. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan. Available from:
  33. Marquart RM, Kim TH, Shin JH, Jeong J-W. Progesterone and Estrogen Signaling in the Endometrium: What Goes Wrong in Endometriosis? Int.J.Mol Sci. 2019 Aug; 20(15): 3822. DOI: 10.3390/ijms20153822
  34. Munoz J, Wheler J, Kurzrock R. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors across human malignancies: new therapeutic opportunities. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015. Dec;34(4):547–61. DOI: 10.1007/s10555-014-9543-z.
  35. Seoan LM, Tovar S, Diegues C. Physiology of the Hypothalamus Pituitary Unit. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Diseases. Endocrinology (ENDOCR). 2017. P. 1–33.
  36. Shahid M A, Ashraf MA, Sharma S. Physiology, Thyroid Hormone. [Internet]. StatPearls. 2023. Available from: NBK500006/



How to Cite

Bobritska, V., Strakhovetsky, V., Golovina, O., & Kozub, T. (2024). Impact on the links of the mastopathy pathogenesis: a view on the pathological cascade correction. REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (71), 72–83.



Tumors and pretumoral pathology