Dynamics of C-reactive protein and albumin levels in women of late reproductive age during pregnancy induced in assisted reproductive technology programs





infertility, assisted reproductive technologies, induced pregnancy, late reproductive age, C-reactive protein, albumin


Background. Pregnancy from a biological point of view is an inflammatory condition. Decreased fertility, especially when assisted reproductive technologies are required, as well as women’s late reproductive age is associated with increased inflammation.

Objective of the study: to determine the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in women of late reproductive age in the dynamics of pregnancy induced in assisted reproductive technologies programs.

Materials and methods. Under observation were 123 women with infertility cured in assisted reproductive technologies cycles: 65 were pregnant women of late  reproductive age (group I), 58 were of active reproductive age (group II). Control group С consisted of 57 pregnant women of advanced reproductive age after the natural concept. The level of CRP was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method, albumin level – with a colorimetric analysis.

Results. It was found that, the CRP level in the blood serum increased over the course of the gestational process and was significantly lower in the first trimester compared to the second and third trimester in all studied groups of pregnant women. Pregnant women of group I had higher levels of serum CRP compared to women of group II and group C. The albumin level in the blood serum in the first trimester of pregnancy was statistically significantly higher compared to the second and third trimesters in all studied groups. Women in group I had lower levels of serum albumin compared to pregnant women in group II and group C.

Conclusions. Pregnancy induced in assisted reproductive technologies programs in women of late reproductive age is characterized by increased levels of CRP and decreased levels of albumin in peripheral blood serum, which requires the development of appropriate therapeutic and preventive correction during pregnancy.

Author Biographies

F.A. Khancha, Donetsk National Medical University, Kropivnytskyi

PhD, assistant, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

O.M. Nosenko, Odesa National Medical University, Odesa

MD, professor, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department


  1. von Tempelhoff GF, Velten E, Yilmaz A, et al. Blood rheology at term in normal pregnancy and in patients with adverse outcome events. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2009;42(2):127–39. doi: 10.3233/CH-2009-1193/
  2. Mor G, Aldo P, Alvero AB. The unique immunological and microbial aspects of pregnancy. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Aug;17(8):469– 82. doi: 10.1038/nri.2017.64
  3. Larsson A, Palm M, Hansson LO, et al. Reference values for alpha1-acid glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, albumin, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, IgA, IgG and IgM during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(10):1084–8. doi: 10.1080/00016340802428146
  4. Dockree S, Brook J, James T, et al. Pregnancy-specific reference intervals for C-reactive protein improve diagnostic accuracy for infection: A longitudinal study. Clin Chim Acta. 2021 Jun;517:81– 5. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2021.02.015
  5. Larsson A, Palm M, Helmersson J, Axelsson O. Pentraxin 3 values during normal pregnancy. Inflammation. 2011 Oct;34(5):448–51. doi: 10.1007/ s10753-010-9252-x
  6. Yu N, Cui H, Chen X, Chang Y. Changes of serum pentraxin-3 and hypersensitive CRP levels during pregnancy and their relationship with gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2019 Nov;14(11):e0224739. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0224739
  7. Jo YS, Cheon JY, Ahn JW, et al. Pentraxin 3 and lipid profile status in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Aug;37(6):727–30. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1291596
  8. Zhang H, Li X, Zhang F, et al. Serum C-reactive protein levels are associated with clinical pregnancy rate after in vitro fertilization among normal-weight women. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jan:14:934766. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.934766
  9. Wirestam L, Pihl S, Saleh M, et al. Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Pentraxin-3 Reference Intervals During Normal Pregnancy. Front Immunol. 2021 Aug:2:12:722118. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.722118
  10. Du Clos TW, Mold C. C-reactive protein: an activator of innate immunity and a modulator of adaptive immunity. Immunol Res. 2004;30(3):261–77. doi: 10.1385/IR:30:3:261
  11. Gabay C, Kushner I. Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):448– 54. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199902113400607
  12. Wu N, Liu T, Tian M et al. Albumin, an interesting and functionally diverse protein, varies from ‘native’ to ‘effective’ (Review). Mol Med Rep. 2024 Feb;29(2):24. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2023.13147
  13. Baldassarre M, Naldi M, Zaccherini G, et al. Determination of Effective Albumin in Patients With Decompensated Cirrhosis: Clinical and Prognostic Implications. Hepatology. 2021 Oct;74(4):2058–73. doi: 10.1002/hep.31798
  14. Jiang Y, Yang Z, Wu Q, et al. The association between albumin and C-reactive protein in older adults. Medicine (Baltimore). 2023 Aug 25;102(34):e34726. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000034726
  15. Belinskaia DA, Voronina PA, Goncharov NV. Integrative Role of Albumin: Evolutionary, Biochemical and Pathophysiological Aspects. J Evol Biochem Physiol. 2021;57(6):1419–48. doi: 10.1134/S002209302106020X
  16. Klajnbard A, Szecsi PB, Colov NP, et al. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010 Feb;48(2):237–48. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2010.033
  17. Abbassi-Ghanavati M, Greer LG, Cunningham FG. Pregnancy and laboratory studies: a reference table for clinicians. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;114(6):1326–31. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c2bde8
  18. Banait T, Wanjari A, Danade V, et al. Role of High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) in Non-communicable Diseases: A Review. Cureus. 2022 Oct;14(10):e30225. doi: 10.7759/cureus.30225
  19. Artigas A, Wernerman J, Arroyo V, et al. Role of albumin in diseases associated with severe systemic inflammation: Pathophysiologic and clinical evidence in sepsis and in decompensated cirrhosis. J Crit Care. 2016 Jun:33:62–70. doi: 10.1016/j. jcrc.2015.12.019.
  20. Ritchie RF, Palomaki GE, Neveux LM, et al. Reference distributions for the negative acute-phase serum proteins, albumin, transferrin and transthyretin: a practical, simple and clinically relevant approach in a large cohort. J Clin Lab Anal. 1999;13(6):273–9. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1098-2825(1999)13:6<273::aid-jcla4>3.0.co;2-x.
  21. Brouillet S, Boursier G, Anav M, et al. C-reactive protein and ART outcomes: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2020 Sep 1; 26(5):753– 73. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmaa012
  22. Radin RG, Sjaarda LA, Silver RM, et al. C-Reactive protein in relation to fecundability and anovulation among eumenorrheic women. Fertil Steril. 2018 Feb;109(2):232–9.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.10.025
  23. Radin RG, Mumford SL, Silver RM et al. Sex ratio following preconception low-dose aspirin in women with prior pregnancy loss. J Clin Invest. 2015 Sep;125(9):3619–26. doi: 10.1172/JCI82357
  24. Wyczalkowska-Tomasik A, Czarkowska-Paczek B, Zielenkiewicz M, Paczek L. Inflammatory Markers Change with Age, but do not Fall Beyond Reported Normal Ranges. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016 Jun;64(3):249–54. doi: 10.1007/s00005-015-0357-7
  25. Diba-Bagtash F, Farshbaf-Khalili A, Ghasemzadeh A, et al. Maternal C-reactive protein and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2020 Nov;37(11):2635–41. doi: 10.1007/s10815-020-01924-1.



How to Cite

Khancha, F., & Nosenko, O. (2024). Dynamics of C-reactive protein and albumin levels in women of late reproductive age during pregnancy induced in assisted reproductive technology programs. REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (71), 58–66. https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2024.71.58-66



Pregnancy and childbirth