Vitamin D level and hormonal status association in adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea




oligomenorrhea, adolescent girls, gonadotropic hormones, steroid hormones, vitamin D


Research objective: to determine the frequency of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency to identify its association with reproductive hormones in adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea.
Materials and methods. The work was carried out according to the results of clinical and instrumental examination of 68 adolescent girls 12–18 years old with oligomenorrhea, who were treated at the Department of Pediatric Gynecology of the State Institution “Institute for Children and Adolescents Health Care of the NAMS of Ukraine”.
Patients were divided into two groups depending on the body mass index (BMI): group I – with a body weight deficit (BMI 16.31 ± 0.18 kg/m2), group II – with a BMI within physiological norm (20.0 ± 0.25 kg/m2). All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination: luteinizing, follicle-stimulating hormones, prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, 25(OH)D were determined in blood serum. Multivariate regression analysis was using for analyze the association of gonаdotropic, steroid hormones with vitamin D. The main characteristics of the object discrimination model are presented in the form of tables.
Results. The article provides a comparative analysis of the hormonal profile and vitamin D level depending on BMI. It was revealed that a reduced 25(OH)D value was characteristic not only in patients with menstrual dysfunction, but also in peers with normal menstrual function. Schemes that characterize the pituitary-gonadal association with vitamin D were constructed based on the results of multiple regression analysis. Their features were determined in girls with different body weights. In patients with low energy resources there were direct associations between individual indicators of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone), steroid hormones (estradiol, cortisol) and vitamin D.
An inverse association was observed between vitamin D and cortisol and prolactin in girls with balanced energy status.
Conclusions. The reduced content of vitamin D is characteristically for patients with menstrual dysfunctions by the type of oligomenorrhea. Associations of gonadotropic, steroid hormones and vitamin D, depending on the energy status (nutrition) of patients with oligomenorrhea were revealed.

Author Biographies

V.O. Dynnik, SI “Institute for Children and Adolescents Health Care of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kharkiv

MD, senior research fellow, deputy director for research work

O.O. Dynnik, Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv

PhD, associate professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology No. 1

A.Y. Druzhynina, SI “Institute for Children and Adolescents Health Care of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kharkiv

Graduate student


  1. Huh, S.Y., Gordon, C.M. “Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents: epidemiology, impact and treatment.” Rev Endocr Metab Disord 9.2 (2008): 161–70. DOI: 10.1007/s11154-007-9072-y
  2. Andıran, N., Çelik, N., Akça, H., Doğan, G. “Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents.” J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 4.1 (2012): 25–9. DOI: 10.4274/jcrpe.574
  3. González-Gross, M., Valtueña, J., Breidenassel, C., et al. “Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.” Br J Nutr 107.5 (2012): 755–64. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511003527
  4. Oak, J.W. “Prevalence Rate and Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency among Adolescents in the Korea.” Int Interdisciplinary J 20.7 (2017): 5467–74.
  5. Misra, M., Pacaud, D., Petryk, A., et al. “Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations.” Pediatrics 122.2 (2008): 398–417. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-1894
  6. Balasubramanian, S., Dhanalakshmi, K., Amperayani, S. “Vitamin D deficiency in childhood – A review of current guidelines on diagnosis and management.” Indian Pediatr 50 (2013): 669–75. DOI: 10.1007/s13312-013-0200-3
  7. Vierucci, F., Del Pistoia, M., Fanos, M., et al. “Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and predictors of vitamin D status in Italian healthy adolescents.” Ital J Pediatr 40, 54 (2014). DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-40-54
  8. Yetim Şahin, A., Tıkız, C., Baş, F. “Prevelance of Vitamin D and B12 Deficiency in Adolescence.” Journal of Child 17.1 (2017): 24–9. DOI: 10.5222/j.child.2017.024
  9. Holick, M.F., Binkley, N.C., Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., et al. “Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96.7 (2011): 1911–30. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385
  10. Płudowski, P., Karczmarewicz, E., Lorenc, R.S., et al. “Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe – recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency.” Endokrynologia Polska 64.4 (2013): 319–27. DOI: 10.5603/EP.2013.0012
  11. Chen, Y., Zhi, X. “Roles of Vitamin D in Reproductive Systems and Assisted Reproductive Technology.” Endocrinology 161.4 (2020): bqaa023. DOI: 10.1210/endocr/bqaa023
  12. Lorenzen, M., Boisen, I.M., Mortensen, L.J., et al. “Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D.” Mol Cell Endocrinol 453 (2017): 103–12. DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.03.023
  13. Arslan, S., Akdevelioğlu, Y. “The Relationship Between Female Reproductive Functions and Vitamin D.” J Am Coll Nutr 37.6 (2018): 546–51. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1431160
  14. De Azevedo, L.A., Matte, U., da Silveira, T.R., Álvares-da-Silva, M.R. “Genetic variants underlying vitamin D metabolism and VDR-TGFβ-1-SMAD3 interaction may impact on HCV progression: a study based on dbGaP data from the HALT-C study.” J Hum Genet 62.11 (2017): 969–77. DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2017.75
  15. Mu, Y., Cheng, D., Yin, T.L., Yang, J. “Vitamin D and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Narrative Review.” Reprod Sci 28.8 (2021): 2110–7. DOI: 10.1007/s43032-020-00369-2
  16. Chu, C., Tsuprykov, O., Chen, X., et al. “Relationship Between Vitamin D and Hormones Important for Human Fertility in Reproductive-Aged Women.” Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 12 (2021): 666–87. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2021.666687
  17. Mitro, S.D., Zota, A.R. “Vitamin D and uterine leiomyoma among a sample of US women: Findings from NHANES, 2001–2006.” Reprod Toxicol 57 (2015): 81–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.05.013
  18. Bashmakova, N.V., Lisovskaya, T.V., Vlasova, V.Y. “Pathogenetic role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of menstrual dysfunction in pubertal girls: a literature review.” Gynecol Endocrinol 33 (2017): 52–5. DOI: 10.1080/09513590.2017.1404235
  19. Bahrami, A., Bahrami-Taghanaki, H., Afkhamizadeh, M., et al. “Menstrual disorders and premenstrual symptoms in adolescents: prevalence and relationship to serum calcium and vitamin D concentrations.” J Obstet Gynaecol 38.7 (2018): 989–95. DOI: 10.1080/01443615.2018.1434764
  20. Lombardi, G., Vitale, J.A., Logoluso, S., et al. “Circannual rhythm of plasmatic vitamin D levels and the association with markers of psychophysical stress in a cohort of Italian professional soccer players.” Chronobiol Int 34.4 (2017): 471–9. DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2017.1297820
  21. Ukibe Nkiruka, R., Ukibe Solomon, N., Onyenekwe Charles C., et al. “Prognostic Value of Serum Estrogen, Cortisol, Calcium and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Pre and Postmenopausal HIV Women at Nnewi, Nigeria.” Int J Trop Dis Health 21.4 (2017): 1–11. DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2017/27212
  22. Irani, M., Merhi, Z. “Role of vitamin D in ovarian physiology and its implication in reproduction: a systematic review.” Fertil Steril 102.2 (2014): 460–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.04.046



How to Cite

Dynnik, V., Dynnik, O., & Druzhynina, A. (2021). Vitamin D level and hormonal status association in adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea. REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (62), 59–62.