Neuropsychiatric status of infants with intrauterine growth retardation
Keywords:intrauterine growth retardation, preterm children, psychomotor status
The article studied and analyzed multiple publications, reflecting the results of studies features of neuropsychiatric status of children born with intrauterine growth retardation, at birth and during the neonatal period.
As the findings of the analyzed studies, children born with intrauterine growth retardation, are a special cohort of infants, which characterized by a high risk of disorders of physical and psychomotor development. In children with expressed backlog of index of weight and growth the frequency of brain lesions is higher than children, which corresponded for gestational age. The high frequency of disorders of neuropsychiatric development necessitates the evaluation of neurological status of the newborn from the first days of life with using different scales, as well as using the methods of neurovisualization and neurophysiology.
Magnetic resonance imaging with additional methods (diffusional-tensor, functional, volume, magnetic resonance spectroscopy) gives the most accurate picture of the brain architectonics, allows to detect and make the quantitative assessment of non-cystic white matter lesions and metabolic relations in various areas of the brain. Using multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows to assess the ratio of different metabolites in several brain regions at once. Therefore, the disorders of metabolic ratio may be an important prognostic sign.
In addition to neurovisualization methods, for obtain a comprehensive assessment of neurological status must be performed the neurophysiological studies, which include electroencephalography, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and method of evoked acoustic, visual and somatosensory potentials.
Special attention is given to the method of evoked potentials, which allows to obtain reliable information about the integrity and degree of maturity of pathways and, therefore, about the degree of maturity of the child’s nervous system, and predict the risk of developing blindness, deafness and cerebral palsy early enough.
At the same time the authors of the study concluded that for early detection of disorders in the neonatal period and carrying out the targeted rehabilitation therapy needed the further study of infants born with intrauterine growth retardation.
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