Role of reducing fertility factors in reproductive aged women and their assosiation with micronutrients

П. Н. Веропотвелян, Н. П. Веропотвелян, А. А. Бондаренко, П. С. Горук

Abstract


Fertility is ability of sexually mature organism to reproduce offspring. Infertility is an inability of organism to conceive a mature. The frequency of male and female factors is above 40% in the structure of marriage infertility, 15% of infertility causes is caused by both partners, 5–10% of cases are not established. The most common causes of female infertility are an ovulation disorders (25–30%) and tubal occlusion (20–25%).

Stress is one of the probable cases of the fertility decline and insufficient effectiveness of the reproductive programs, especially for unknown origin. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, which leads to stress reaction, can significantly inhibit the function of the female reproductive system at different levels. Oxidative stress in the ovaries is another important mechanism to reduce fertility.

No one doubts that a deficiency of vitamins and elements can reduce fertility and cause infertility. Since impaired fertility involved a number of known active substances, during the infertility treatment should take into account this factor and to include those macro- and microelements and vitamins, the probability of which deficiency is the highest. They include homocysteine, folate, vitamin E, vitamin C, group B vitamins, L-arginine, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and others.

According to many publications appointment of the trace elements and vitamins, which are lacking in the body, provides the adaptation of the nervous system, hormonal homeostasis and the optimal condition of the reproductive system organs prior to pregnancy.

Physician should be carefully weighed hormone therapy at the fertile period of woman, based on the benefits and risks for the woman and for the unborn child. This hormonal therapy, as a necessary component in patients with endocrine infertility or women in program of assisted reproductive technologies may not have the expected success due to the formation of micronutrient deficiency.


Keywords


fertility; infertility; micronutrients; vitamins; microelements; amino acids

References


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Tatarchuk, T.F., Yefimenko, O.A., Tutchenko, T.N. “Stress and involution of the female reproductive system.” Reproductive Health of Women 5.34 (2007): 153–6.

Gallucci, W.T., Baum, A., Laue, L., Rabin, D.S., et al. “Sex differences in sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis.” Health Psychol 12 (1993): 420–8.

Westphal, L.M., Polan, M.L., Trant, A.S. “Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Fertilityblend: a nutritional supplement for improving fertility in women.” Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 33.4 (2006): 205–8.

White, R.E., Gerrity, R., Barman, S.A., Han, G. “Estrogen and oxidative stress: A novel mechanism that may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in women.” Steroids 75.11 (2010): 788–93.

Dupont, J.J., Farquhar, W.B., Townsend, R.R., Edwards, D.G. “Ascorbic acid or L-arginine improves cutaneous microvascular function in chronic kidney disease.” J Appl Physiol 111.6 (2011): 1561–7.

Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Miwa, I., et al. “Endometrial growth and uterine blood flow: a pilot study for improving endometrial thickness in the patients with a thin endometrium.” Fertil Steril 93 (2010): 1851–8.

Takacs, P., Jaramillo, S., Zhang, Y., et al. “The effects of PPAR-delta agonist and zinc on ovariectomized rats’ vagina.” Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 19.3 (2013): 126–31.

Romani, A.M. “Magnesium in health and disease.” Met Ions Life Sci 13 (2013): 49–79.

Midttun, O., Hustad, S., Schneede, J., Vollset, S.E., Ueland, P.M. “Plasma vitamin B-6 forms and their relation to transsulfuration metabolites in a large, population-based study.” Am J Clin Nutr 86.1 (2007): 131–8.

Kuznetsova, I.V. “Preparing for pregnancy in women with reduced fertility.” Obstet&Gynec 12 (2014): 15–21.

Mosley, B.S., Cleves, M.A., Siega-Riz, A.M., et al. “Neural tube defects and maternal folate intake among pregnancies conceived after folic acid fortification in the United States.” Am J Epidemiol 169.1 (2009): 9–17.

Li, X.F., Bowe, J.E., Lightman, S.L., O’Byrne, K.T. “Role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 in stressinduced suppression of pulsatile lutenizing hormone secretion in the rat.” Endocrinology 146 (2005): 318–22.

Dunn, A.J., Swiergiel, A.H. “The role of corticotropin-releasing factor and noradrenaline in stress-related responses, and the inter-relationships between the two systems.” Eur J Pharmacol 583.2–3 (2008): 186–93.

Mo, B., Feng, N., Renner, K., Forster, G. “Restraint stress increases serotonin release in the central nucles of the amygdala via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors.” Brain Res Bull 76 (2008): 493–8.

Tsutsui, K., Bentley, G.E., Bedecarrats, G., et al. “Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and its control of central and peripheral reproductive function.” Front Neuroendocrinol 31.3 (2010): 284–95.

Richards, J.S. “Ovulation: new factors that prepare the oocyte for fertilization.” Mol Cell Endocrinol 234 (2005): 75–9.

Agarwal, A., Aponte-Mellado, A., Premkumar, B.J., et al. “The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review.” Reprod Biol Endocrinol 10 (2012): 49.

Dumollard, R., Campbell, K., Halet, G., Carroll, J., Swann, K. “Regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in mouse eggs and zygotes.” Dev Biol 316 (2008): 431–40.

Lawlor, D.W., Tezara, W. “Causes of decreased photosynthetic rate and metabolic capacity in water-deficient leaf cells: a critical evaluation of mechanisms and integration of processes.” Ann Bot 103 (2009): 561–79.

Peterson, C.M., Johannsen, D.L., Ravussin, E. “Skeletal muscle mitochondria and aging: a review.” J Aging Res (2012): 194821.

Wang, L.Y., Wang, D.H., Zou, X.Y., Xu, C.M. “Mitochondrial functions on oocytes and preimplantation embryos.” J Zhejiang Univ Sci 10 (2009): 483–92.

Goud, A.P., Goud, P.T., Diamond, M.P., et al. “Reactive oxygen species and oocyte aging: role of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid.” Free Radic Biol Med 44 (2008): 1295–304.

Tatemoto, H., Muto, N., Sunagawa, I., Shinjo, A., Nakada, T. “Protection of porcine oocytes against cell damage caused by oxidative stress during in vitro maturation: role of superoxide dismutase activity in porcine follicular fluid.” Biol Reprod 71 (2004): 1150–7.

Lebovitz, O., Orvieto, R. “Treating patients with «thin» endometrium – an ongoing challenge.” Gynecol Endocrinol 30.6 (2014): 409–14.

Pagano, G., Talamanca, A.A., Castello, G., et al. “Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction across broadranging pathologies: toward mitochondria-targeted clinical strategies.” Oxid Med Cell Longev (2014): 541230.

De Groote, D., Perrier d’Hauterive, S., Pintiaux, A., et al. “Effects of oral contraception with ethinylestradiol and drospirenone on oxidative stress in women 18–35 years old.” Contraception 80.2 (2009): 187–93.

Emonts, P., Seaksan, S., Seidel, L., et al. “Prediction of maternal predisposition to preeclampsia.” Hypertens Pregnancy 27.3 (2008): 237–45.

Hoffman, M. “Hypothesis: hyperhomocysteinemia is an indicator of oxidant stress.” Med Hypotheses 77.6 (2011): 1088–93.

Maron, B.A., Loscalzo, J. “The treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia.” Annu Rev Med 60 (2009): 39–54.

Fares, S., Sethom, M.M., Khouaja-Mokrani, C., et al. “Vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in tunisian very low birth weight neonates: prevalence and risk factors.” Pediatr Neonatol 55.3 (2014): 196–201.

Baumgartner, M.R. “Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.” Handb Clin Neurol 113 (2013): 1799–810.

Gareskog, M. “Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin E diminishes diabetes-induced embryotoxicity in rats.” Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 76.6 (2006): 483–90.

Mozdarani, H. “Numerical chromosome abnormalities in 8-cell embryos generated from gamma-irradiated male mice in the absence and presence of vitamin E.” Int J Radiat Biol 82.11 (2006): 817–22.

Moores, J. “Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective.” Br J Commun Nurs Supp. l6 (2013): 8–11.

Gürgen, S.G., Erdoğan, D., Elmas, C., et al. “Chemoprotective effect of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and selenium on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in the rat ovarium.” Nutrition 29.5 (2013): 777–84.

Zal, F., Mostafavi-Pour, Z., Amini, F., Heidari, A. “Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzyme status in the blood of women consuming oral contraceptives.” Contraception 86.1 (2012): 62–6.

Klemmensen, A., Tabor, A., Osterdal, M.L. “Intake of vitamin C and E in pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia: prospective study among 57346 women.” Br J Obstet Gynaecol 116.7 (2009): 964–74.

Shen, J., Lai, C.Q., Mattei, J., Ordovas, J.M., Tucker, K.L. “Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.” Am J Clin Nutr 91.2 (2010): 337–42.

Chou, Y.C., Chu, C.H., Wu, M.H., et al. “Dietary intake of vitamin B(6) and risk of breast cancer in Taiwanese women.” J Epidemiol 21.5 (2011): 329–36.

Morris, M.S., Picciano, M.S., Jaques, P.F., Selhub, J. “Plasma pyridoxal 5’-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004.” Am J Clin Nutr 87 (2008): 1446–54.

Candito, M., Rivet, R., Herbeth, B., et al. “Nutritional and genetic determinants of vitamin B and homocysteine metabolisms in neural tube defects: a multicenter case-control study.” Am J Med Genet A 146 (2008): 1128–33.

Berenson, A.B., Rahman, M. “Effect of hormonal contraceptives on vitamin B12 level and the association of the latter with bone mineral density.” Contraception 86.5 (2012): 481–7.

Chesters, J.K., Boyne, R., et al. Zinc dependent promoters in cell replication and differentiation. Trace Elements in Man and Animals – ТЕМА-8. Ed. by M. Anke, D. Meissner, C.F. Mills. Dresden (1996):136–40.

Ozata, M., Salk, M., Aydin, A., et al. “Iodine and zinc, but not selenium and cooper, deficiency exists in a male Turkish population with endemic goiter.” Biol Trace Elem Res 69.3 (1999): 211–216.

Johnson, M.A., Porter, K.N. “Micronutrient supplementation and infection in institutionalized elders.” Nutr Res 55.11 (2007): 400–404.

Barbagallo, M., Belvedere, M., Dominguez, L.J. “Magnesium homeostasis and aging.” Magnes Res 22.4 (2009): 235–46.

Akinloye, O., Adebayo, T.O., Oguntibeju, O.O., et al. “Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels.” West Indian Med J 60.3 (2011): 308–15.

Russo, M., Tedesco, I., Iacomino, G., et al. “Dietary phytochemicals in chemoprevention of cancer.” Curr Med Chem – Immun Endocr Metab Agents 5.1 (2005): 61–72.

Troshina, E.A., Sekinaeva, A.V., Abdulosabirova, F.M. “Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy.” Obstet&Gynec 1 (2009): 7–11.

Walker, W.A., Watkins, J.B. Nutrition in Pediatric. London (1997): 91–114.

Hemmings, K.E., Maruthini, D., Vyjayanthi, S., et al. “Amino acid turnover by human oocytes is influenced by gamete developmental competence, patient characteristics and gonadotrophin treatment.” Hum Reprod 28.40 (2013): 1031–44.

Carmichael, A.R. “Can Vitex Agnus Castus be used for the treatment of mastalgia? What is the current evidence?” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 5.3 (2008): 247–50.

Westphal, L.M., Polan, M.L., Trant, A.S., Mooney, S.B. “A nutritional supplement for improving fertility in women: a pilot study.” J Reprod Med 49 (2004): 289–93.


GOST Style Citations


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7. Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Miwa, I., et al. “Endometrial growth and uterine blood flow: a pilot study for improving endometrial thickness in the patients with a thin endometrium.” Fertil Steril 93 (2010): 1851–8.

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9. Romani, A.M. “Magnesium in health and disease.” Met Ions Life Sci 13 (2013): 49–79.

10. Midttun, O., Hustad, S., Schneede, J., Vollset, S.E., Ueland, P.M. “Plasma vitamin B-6 forms and their relation to transsulfuration metabolites in a large, population-based study.” Am J Clin Nutr 86.1 (2007): 131–8.

11. Kuznetsova, I.V. “Preparing for pregnancy in women with reduced fertility.” Obstet&Gynec 12 (2014): 15–21.

12. Mosley, B.S., Cleves, M.A., Siega-Riz, A.M., et al. “Neural tube defects and maternal folate intake among pregnancies conceived after folic acid fortification in the United States.” Am J Epidemiol 169.1 (2009): 9–17.

13. Li, X.F., Bowe, J.E., Lightman, S.L., O’Byrne, K.T. “Role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 in stressinduced suppression of pulsatile lutenizing hormone secretion in the rat.” Endocrinology 146 (2005): 318–22.

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15. Mo, B., Feng, N., Renner, K., Forster, G. “Restraint stress increases serotonin release in the central nucles of the amygdala via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors.” Brain Res Bull 76 (2008): 493–8.

16. Tsutsui, K., Bentley, G.E., Bedecarrats, G., et al. “Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and its control of central and peripheral reproductive function.” Front Neuroendocrinol 31.3 (2010): 284–95.

17. Richards, J.S. “Ovulation: new factors that prepare the oocyte for fertilization.” Mol Cell Endocrinol 234 (2005): 75–9.

18. Agarwal, A., Aponte-Mellado, A., Premkumar, B.J., et al. “The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review.” Reprod Biol Endocrinol 10 (2012): 49.

19. Dumollard, R., Campbell, K., Halet, G., Carroll, J., Swann, K. “Regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in mouse eggs and zygotes.” Dev Biol 316 (2008): 431–40.

20. Lawlor, D.W., Tezara, W. “Causes of decreased photosynthetic rate and metabolic capacity in water-deficient leaf cells: a critical evaluation of mechanisms and integration of processes.” Ann Bot 103 (2009): 561–79.

21. Peterson, C.M., Johannsen, D.L., Ravussin, E. “Skeletal muscle mitochondria and aging: a review.” J Aging Res (2012): 194821.

22. Wang, L.Y., Wang, D.H., Zou, X.Y., Xu, C.M. “Mitochondrial functions on oocytes and preimplantation embryos.” J Zhejiang Univ Sci 10 (2009): 483–92.

23. Goud, A.P., Goud, P.T., Diamond, M.P., et al. “Reactive oxygen species and oocyte aging: role of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid.” Free Radic Biol Med 44 (2008): 1295–304.

24. Tatemoto, H., Muto, N., Sunagawa, I., Shinjo, A., Nakada, T. “Protection of porcine oocytes against cell damage caused by oxidative stress during in vitro maturation: role of superoxide dismutase activity in porcine follicular fluid.” Biol Reprod 71 (2004): 1150–7.

25. Lebovitz, O., Orvieto, R. “Treating patients with «thin» endometrium – an ongoing challenge.” Gynecol Endocrinol 30.6 (2014): 409–14.

26. Pagano, G., Talamanca, A.A., Castello, G., et al. “Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction across broadranging pathologies: toward mitochondria-targeted clinical strategies.” Oxid Med Cell Longev (2014): 541230.

27. De Groote, D., Perrier d’Hauterive, S., Pintiaux, A., et al. “Effects of oral contraception with ethinylestradiol and drospirenone on oxidative stress in women 18–35 years old.” Contraception 80.2 (2009): 187–93.

28. Emonts, P., Seaksan, S., Seidel, L., et al. “Prediction of maternal predisposition to preeclampsia.” Hypertens Pregnancy 27.3 (2008): 237–45.

29. Hoffman, M. “Hypothesis: hyperhomocysteinemia is an indicator of oxidant stress.” Med Hypotheses 77.6 (2011): 1088–93.

30. Maron, B.A., Loscalzo, J. “The treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia.” Annu Rev Med 60 (2009): 39–54.

31. Fares, S., Sethom, M.M., Khouaja-Mokrani, C., et al. “Vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in tunisian very low birth weight neonates: prevalence and risk factors.” Pediatr Neonatol 55.3 (2014): 196–201.

32. Baumgartner, M.R. “Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.” Handb Clin Neurol 113 (2013): 1799–810.

33. Gareskog, M. “Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin E diminishes diabetes-induced embryotoxicity in rats.” Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 76.6 (2006): 483–90.

34. Mozdarani, H. “Numerical chromosome abnormalities in 8-cell embryos generated from gamma-irradiated male mice in the absence and presence of vitamin E.” Int J Radiat Biol 82.11 (2006): 817–22.

35. Moores, J. “Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective.” Br J Commun Nurs Supp. l6 (2013): 8–11.

36. Gürgen, S.G., Erdoğan, D., Elmas, C., et al. “Chemoprotective effect of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and selenium on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in the rat ovarium.” Nutrition 29.5 (2013): 777–84.

37. Zal, F., Mostafavi-Pour, Z., Amini, F., Heidari, A. “Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzyme status in the blood of women consuming oral contraceptives.” Contraception 86.1 (2012): 62–6.

38. Klemmensen, A., Tabor, A., Osterdal, M.L. “Intake of vitamin C and E in pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia: prospective study among 57346 women.” Br J Obstet Gynaecol 116.7 (2009): 964–74.

39. Shen, J., Lai, C.Q., Mattei, J., Ordovas, J.M., Tucker, K.L. “Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.” Am J Clin Nutr 91.2 (2010): 337–42.

40. Chou, Y.C., Chu, C.H., Wu, M.H., et al. “Dietary intake of vitamin B(6) and risk of breast cancer in Taiwanese women.” J Epidemiol 21.5 (2011): 329–36.

41. Morris, M.S., Picciano, M.S., Jaques, P.F., Selhub, J. “Plasma pyridoxal 5’-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004.” Am J Clin Nutr 87 (2008): 1446–54.

42. Candito, M., Rivet, R., Herbeth, B., et al. “Nutritional and genetic determinants of vitamin B and homocysteine metabolisms in neural tube defects: a multicenter case-control study.” Am J Med Genet A 146 (2008): 1128–33.

43. Berenson, A.B., Rahman, M. “Effect of hormonal contraceptives on vitamin B12 level and the association of the latter with bone mineral density.” Contraception 86.5 (2012): 481–7.

44. Chesters, J.K., Boyne, R., et al. Zinc dependent promoters in cell replication and differentiation. Trace Elements in Man and Animals – ТЕМА-8. Ed. by M. Anke, D. Meissner, C.F. Mills. Dresden (1996):136–40.

45. Ozata, M., Salk, M., Aydin, A., et al. “Iodine and zinc, but not selenium and cooper, deficiency exists in a male Turkish population with endemic goiter.” Biol Trace Elem Res 69.3 (1999): 211–216.

46. Johnson, M.A., Porter, K.N. “Micronutrient supplementation and infection in institutionalized elders.” Nutr Res 55.11 (2007): 400–404.

47. Barbagallo, M., Belvedere, M., Dominguez, L.J. “Magnesium homeostasis and aging.” Magnes Res 22.4 (2009): 235–46.

48. Akinloye, O., Adebayo, T.O., Oguntibeju, O.O., et al. “Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels.” West Indian Med J 60.3 (2011): 308–15.

49. Russo, M., Tedesco, I., Iacomino, G., et al. “Dietary phytochemicals in chemoprevention of cancer.” Curr Med Chem – Immun Endocr Metab Agents 5.1 (2005): 61–72.

50. Troshina, E.A., Sekinaeva, A.V., Abdulosabirova, F.M. “Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy.” Obstet&Gynec 1 (2009): 7–11.

51. Walker, W.A., Watkins, J.B. Nutrition in Pediatric. London (1997): 91–114.

52. Hemmings, K.E., Maruthini, D., Vyjayanthi, S., et al. “Amino acid turnover by human oocytes is influenced by gamete developmental competence, patient characteristics and gonadotrophin treatment.” Hum Reprod 28.40 (2013): 1031–44.

53. Carmichael, A.R. “Can Vitex Agnus Castus be used for the treatment of mastalgia? What is the current evidence?” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 5.3 (2008): 247–50.

54. Westphal, L.M., Polan, M.L., Trant, A.S., Mooney, S.B. “A nutritional supplement for improving fertility in women: a pilot study.” J Reprod Med 49 (2004): 289–93.





DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2016.31.40-48

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