Prospects of using melatonin in the reproductive medicine
Keywords:melatonin, oocyte, ejaculate, infertility, reproductive technologies, review of the literature
Studies in recent decades have greatly expanded understanding of the role of melatonin in the human organism, showing that its functions extend well beyond the regulation of the sleep-wake rhythms. The article describes the results of studies about role of the epiphyseal and non-epiphyseal melatonin in various processes occurring in the implementation of the human reproductive function, and analyzed of the prospects for the use of melatonin drugs in reproductive medicine and gynecology.
As numerous studies is showed, melatonin has an important integrating multifaceted role in regulation of the human reproduction. In particular, in addition to protective effects, melatonin has a direct impact on the growth and maturation of oocytes, as well as increases the level of fertilization. One of studies shows, what the application of melatonin (3 mg per day for 2 weeks) for women with low fertilization level in program of assisted reproductive technology (ART), was increased this level in the next cycle from 35.1 to 68.2%, and the number of high quality embryos was increased from 48 to 65.6%. The study authors conclude that the use of melatonin in ART cycles has a positive effect on cycles efficiency by reducing the damaging effects of oxidative stress on oocyte.
Furthermore, melatonin, which toxicity is extremely low, well penetrates through the hematotesticular barrier, which makes its use promising in the treatment of male infertility with ART. Studies by various authors convincingly demonstrate the protective effect of melatonin against the damaging effects of oxidative stress, which is accompanied by a manipulation with ejaculate as part of ART.
One of reviews in 2016 was analyzed all available literature data on safety of melatonin drugs. The results showed that short-term use of melatonin is safe even in extreme doses. None of the studies not reported about serious side effects. Among minor effects were observed dizziness, nausea, headache, drowsiness. The data indicate that the scope of clinical application of melatonin is not limited to the timing rhythms sleep-wake: its powerful antioxidant effects are universal and can be used in a treatment of variety of pathologies, including reproductive disorders in women and men.
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