National consensus on the management of patients with hyperprolactinemia (2016)


  • М. Д. Тронько V.P. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the NAMS of Ukraine, Ukraine
  • Ю. Г. Антипкін SI “Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Ukraine
  • В. В. Камінський National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education named after P.L. Shupyk, Ukraine
  • Т. Ф Татарчук SI “Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Ukraine



national consensus, hyperprolactinemia, prolactin, pituitary tumors, dopamine agonists


Hyperprolactinemia is a steady rise prolactin in serum. Hyperprolactinemia can be physiological, pathological and pharmacological. Pathologic causes include the specific state of the anterior hypophyseal lobe, disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary system and systemic disorders. If there is a diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia it is recommended to exclude its secondary causes: pregnancy, kidney or liver failure, hypothyroidism, parasellar tumors.

For diagnosis a single evaluation prolactin serum levels (≥ 25 ng/ml in females and ≥ 20 ng/ml in males) is enough. Laboratory tests should be evaluated in conjunction with clinical data and additional methods: evaluation of stress, breast ultrasound and/or mammography, assessment of the gonadotropins, estradiol and progesterone levels. In patients with hyperprolactinemia without clinical manifestations it should be macroprolactinemia excluded. There is pharmacological hyperprolactinemia if prolactin level ≈ 200 ng/ml, microprolactinoma if 250 ng/ml, macroprolactinoma if 500 ng/ml and above. Neuroimaging study should be performed in patients with any degree of hyperprolactinemia to exclude hypothalamic-pituitary area pathology.

Treatment goal is normalize the prolactin level, to restore gonadal function and galactorrhea termination and, in the case of prolactinoma to reduce the tumor mass and local compression effects. Treatment often includes administration of dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine or cabergoline, or the use of herbal medicines with dopaminergic action, containing standardized extracts of Vitex agnus castus. Cabergoline is the drug of first line as the most effective against the normalization of prolactin levels and reduce the size of the pituitary tumor.

Surgical treatment (transsphenoidal surgery) is recommended for patients with intolerance to high doses of cabergoline and resistance to other drugs in this group. Radiation therapy

should be used when radical surgery is impossible, in cases of intolerance or resistance to dopamine agonists, while aggressive prolactinoma or carcinomas.

Author Biographies

М. Д. Тронько, V.P. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the NAMS of Ukraine

MD, professor, academician of the NAMS of Ukraine, corresponding member of the NAMS of Ukraine, director 

Ю. Г. Антипкін, SI “Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the NAMS of Ukraine”

MD, academician of the NAMS of Ukraine, Director, president of the Association of Pediatricians of Ukraine

В. В. Камінський, National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education named after P.L. Shupyk

MD, professor, corresponding member of the NAMS of Ukraine, head of the Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology Department, chief specialist in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, executive director of the Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Ukraine

Т. Ф Татарчук, SI “Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the NAMS of Ukraine”

MD, professor, corresponding member of the NAMS of Ukraine, deputy director for research work, сhief of the Endocrine Gynecology Department, chief specialist in Pediatric Gynecology at the Ministry of Health of Ukraine


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How to Cite

Тронько, М. Д., Антипкін, Ю. Г., Камінський, В. В., & Татарчук, Т. Ф. (2016). National consensus on the management of patients with hyperprolactinemia (2016). REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (30), 8–18.



National consensus