Animal research data on prenatal factors of functional neuroendocrine disorders

А. Г. Резников

Abstract


The term “prenatal stress” is widely used in the scientific literature, although the immediate effects of stressor exposed maternal organism. It is experimentally proved that in this case in fetus body neurohormonal imbalance occurs that typical for the stress state. In particular, in blood increased corticosteroid level of maternal origin. Opioids, catecholamines, and other neurotransmitters levels change in neuroendocrine brain structures. There is potential danger of the mother’s body stress for the fetus development, particularly for the formation of various forms of behavior, neuroendocrine reproduction regulation, metabolism, immunity and adaptive responses.

The results of experimental research by author and co-workers regarding long-term effects of prenatal stress as far as neuroendocrine control of puberty and sex behavior concerned are summarized in the article.

In the study of pregnant rats were stressed after prior administration of drugs with different mechanisms of action, capable of blocking the implementation of the pathogenic effects of prenatal stress. The stress in rats was reproduced by daily immobilization for 1 hour in the last week of pregnancy. 30 minutes before immobilization the rat was administered one of the study drugs: dexamethasone, naltrexone, nimodipine, methyldopa, phenibutum. The control group was formed from the same age intact animals.

Experimental studies were carried out on the offspring of both sexes. Activity of aromatase steroids, catecholamines level and metabolism, distribution of proteins in neuroendocrine brain structures, timing of puberty, male and female sexual behavior, fertility, fecundity, estrous cycle and their phase structure were studied.

It is demonstrated the potential of pharmacological prevention of the neuroendocrine disorders in the offspring that have been delivered by mothers exposed to stress during pregnancy using calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, or by diminishing cathecholaminergic activation of neuroendocrine mechanisms of stress with methyldopa, or by stimulation of GABA-ergic receptor with phenibutum. Contrary, methyldopa or phenibutum administration in non-stressed pregnant animals causes disorders of puberty and sex behavior.

There is proposed the concept of dualistic drug effects on the fetus neuroendocrine function development.


Keywords


pregnancy; prenatal stress; nimodipine; methyldopa; phenibutum; reproduction; adaptation; rat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2016.29.8-15

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