Treatment and prevention of proliferative breast diseases


  • Н. Н. Волошина Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
  • С. Н. Пащенко Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine
  • Н. А. Волошин Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine
  • Н. Ф. Щуров Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine
  • Ф. Шах Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine



benign breast hyperplasia, estrogens, prolactin, breast cancer, Epigalin Brest®


Benign breast hyperplasia is a diseases of civilization associated in women with hormonal disorders, estrogen dominance syndrome. Risk of developing breast cancer for women with proliferative forms of benign breast disease increased tenfold. Absolutely all patients seek medical attention, regardless of pathology, must undergo breast examination and obtain recommendations for the prevention and the multiplicity of diagnostic tests.

An important role in the pathogenesis of benign breast hyperplasia plays an increase prolactin levels. Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent cause of menstrual and generative dysfunctions, as well as benign breast hyperplasia, which negatively affects the quality of women life. Quite often there is not a permanent but temporary (latent or hidden) increase prolactin secretion. Occasional bursts of prolactin levels, combined with hyperestrogenemia cause bloating, breast tenderness (mastalgia). Hyperprolactinemia induced menstrual dysfunction causes abnormal steroidogenesis in the ovaries, which also exacerbates the morphological and functional abnormalities in the mammary glands, promotes dishormonal breast diseases and increases the risk of breast cancer.

Due to the increase of cancer incidence in all countries is increased emphasis on early tumors diagnosis and prevention. Special nutrition and various diets are considered as one of the variants of the anti-tumor protection.

Numerous studies in recent years devoted phytonutrients – substances of plant origin.

Phytopreparation that can be used in these disorders is Epigalin Brest® that contained indole-3-carbinol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Vitex agnus castus extract. Indole-3-carbinol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate are biologically active substances with a well-deserved popularity among clinicians in Europe and the United States. Herbal drug Epigalin Brest® regulates the metabolism of estrogen by blocking the synthesis of its “aggressive” forms, reduces the level of prolactin, inhibits the abnormal proliferation in hormone-dependent organs (mammary gland) and tissues of the reproductive system. Also Epigalin Brest® has antiproliferative effects.

Author Biographies

Н. Н. Волошина, Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

PhD, assistant professor of the Oncology Department

С. Н. Пащенко, Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

PhD, assistant professor of the Oncology Department

Н. А. Волошин, Zaporizhzhia State Medical University

MD, professor, head of the Anatomy Department

Н. Ф. Щуров, Zaporizhzhia State Medical University

PhD, assistant professor of the Oncology Department

Ф. Шах, Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

Assistant of the Oncology Department


  1. Andreeva, E.N., Hamoshina, M.B., Rudneva, O.D. “Prolactin and breasts.” Gynecology, 1(2012): 12–16.
  2. Astakhov, V.M. “Non-hormonal pathogenetically grounded therapy of uterine fibroids.” Women's Health, 3(59) (2011): 112–117.
  3. Ventskovskaia, I.B., Yefimenko, O.A. “Hyperprolactinaemia in gynecologist practice.” Reproductive Women's Health, 3(2003): 71–76.
  4. Voloshina, N.M., Pashchenko, S.M., Shchurov, M.F. , et al. “Non-hormonal therapy of proliferative processes of the breast and endometrium.” Women's Health, 1(77) (2013): 94–98.
  5. Voloshina, N.N., Pashchenko, S.N., Voloshin, N.A., et al. “Prevention of cancer of the reproductive organs.” Women's Health, 5(95) (2014): 73–78.
  6. Zaporozhan, V.N., Tatarchuk, T.F., Dubinina, V.G., Kosei, N.V. “Modern diagnostics and treatment of endometrial hyperplastic processes.” Reproductive Endocrinology, 1(3) (2012): 5–12.
  7. Kiselev, V.I., Lyashenko, A.A. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of hyperplastic processes. Moscow. MedDimitreid (2005): 348 p.
  8. Kiselev, V.I., Sidorova, I.S., Unanian, A.L. Hyperplastic processes of reproductive system: theory and practice. Moscow. ND “Medpractice” (2011): 468 p.
  9. Kiselev, V.I., Lyashenko, A.A. Indinol as a regulator of proliferative processes in the reproductive system organs. Moscow (2005): 56 p.
  10. Kulagina, N.V. “Therapy of fibrocystic breast disease in patients with uterine myoma.” Tumors of the female reproductive system, 1(2010): 40–43.
  11. Smolanka, I.I. “Modern aspects of diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer.” Health of Ukraine, 2011.
  12. Smolanka, I.I., Skliar, S.Y. “Systemic anticancer therapy in patients with breast cancer. Modern aspects of treatment.” Clinical Oncology, 7(3) (2012): 32–36.
  13. Smolanka, I.I., Skliar, S.Y., Golovko, T.S., Ganych, O.V. “Screening, prevention and early diagnostics of breast cancer.” Clinical Onkology, 4(12) (2013): 46–50.
  14. Tatarchuk, T.F., Kalugina, L.V. “Issue of prevention and treatment of hormone-hyperproliferative diseases in women.” Women’s Health, 7(83) (2013): 51–57.
  15. Tatarchuk, T.F., Yefimenko, O.A. “Hyperprolactinemia as a cause of benign breast disease.” Medical Aspects of Women’s Health, 5(91) (2015): 33–38.
  16. Fedorenko, Z.P., Mykhailovych, Y.Y., Gulak, L.O., et al. Cancer in Ukraine at 2011-2012. Bulletin of the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine. Kiev. National Cancer Institute (2013).
  17. Bradlow, H.L., Kabat, G.C. “A pilot study of urinary estrogen metabolites (16alpha-OHE1 and 2-OHE1) in postmenopausal women with and without breast cancer.” Environ Health Perspect, 3 (Vol. 106) (1998): 126–127.
  18. Bradlow, H.I., Michnovicz, J., Halper, M., et al. “Long-term responses of women to indole-3-carbinol or a high fiber diet.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 3(1994): 591–595.
  19. Chen, I., McDougal, A., Wang, F., Safe, S. “Aryl hydrocarbon receptor – mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolyl-methane.” Carcinogenesis, 19(1998): 1631–1639.
  20. Chinni, S.R., Sarkar, F.H. “Aktin activation is a key event in indole-3-carbinol induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells.” Clin Cancer Res, 8(2002): 1228–1236.
  21. Gupta, S., Huh, S.W., Bae, S.M., Kim, Y.W., et al. “Anticancer effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on ovarian carcinoma cell line.” Gynecol Oncol, 94(3) (2004): 760–768.
  22. Halaska, M., Raus, K., Beles, P., et al. “Treatment of cyclical mastodyniausing an extract of Vitex agnus castus: results of a double-blind comparison with a placebo.” Ceska Gynekol, 63(1998): 388–392.
  23. Hong, C., Firestone, G.L., Bjeldanes, L.F. “Bcl-2 family-mediated apoptotic effects of 3.3-diindolylmethane (DIM) in human breast cancer cells.” Biochem Pharmacol, 63(2002):1085–1097.
  24. Lord, R.S., Bongiovanni, B. “Estrogen metabolism and the diet-cancer conection.” Altern Med Rev, 7(2012): 12–29.
  25. Maeda-Yamamoto, M., Kavahara, H., Tahara, N., Tsuju, K., Hara, Y. “Effects of tea polyfenols on the invasion and matrix metalloproteinases activity of human fibrosarcoma HT 1080 cells.” J Agric Food Chem, 47(1999): 2350–2354.
  26. Masuda, M., Suzuki, M., Lim, J.T.E., Weinstein, I.E. “Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits activation of HER-2/neu and downstream signaling pathways in human head and neck and breast carcinoma cells.” Clin Cancer Res, 9(2003): 3486–3491.
  27. Medjakovic, S., Jungbauer, A. “Red clover isoflavones biochanin A and gormononetin are potent ligands of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor.” J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 108(2008): 171–177.
  28. Meng, O., Yuan, F., Goldberg, I.D. “Indol-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen receptor-alfa signaling in human tumor cells.” J Nutr, 132(2005): 2322–3227.
  29. Michnovicz, J.J. “Increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation in obese women using oral indole- 3-carbinol.” Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 22(1998): 227–229.
  30. Rahman, K.M., Aranha, O., Sarkar, F. “Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) induces apoptosis in tumorigenic but not in nontumorgenic breast epithelial cell.” Nutr Cancer, 4(2003): 101–112.
  31. Roger, P., Sahla, M., Makela, S. “Decreased Expresion of estrogen receptor protein in proliferative preinvasive mammary.” Тumors cancer research, 61(2001): 2537–2541.
  32. Sarkar, F., Rahman, K. “Bax translocation tо mitochondria is an important event in including apoptotic cell death by indole-3-carbinol (I3C) treatment of breast cancer cells.” J Nutr, 7 (Vol. 133) (2003): 243–243.
  33. Shrubsole, M., Wei, L., Zhi, C., et al. “Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk.” J Nutr, 139(2009): 310–316.
  34. Thangapazham, R.L., Singh, A.K., Sharma, A., et al. “Green tea polyphenols and its constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.” Cancer Lett, 8(2007): 832–841.
  35. White, R., Parker, M.G. “Molecular mechanism of steroid hormone action.” Endocrine-Related Cancer, 5(2003): 1–14.
  36. Wong, G.Y., Bradlow, L., Sepkovic, D., et al. “Dose-ranging study of indole-3-carbinol for breast cancer prevention.” J Cell Biochem Suppl, 29(1997): 111–116.
  37. Clemons, M., Goss, P. “Estrogen and risk of breast cancer.” N EngL J Med, 344(4) (2001): 276–285.
  38. Yang, C.S., Maliacai, P., Meng, H. “Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.” An Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 42(2002): 25–54.
  39. Yokoama, M., Noduchi, M., Nacao, Y. “The tea polyphenol, epygallocatehin gallate effects on growth, apoptosis and telomeraseactivity in cervical cell lints.” Gynecol Oncol, 122(1) (2004): 209–215.
  40. Zaveri, N.T. “Green tea and its polyphenoliccatehyns. Medicinal uses in cancer.” Life Sciences, 78(18) (2006): 2073–2080.
  41. Zheng, Y., Song, H., Kim, C.H., Kim, H.C., Kim, E.G., Sashinidis, A. “Ingibitory effect of epigallocatechin 3-gallate jn vascular smooth muscule cell.” J Cardiovascular Pharmacol, 43(2) (2005): 200–208.
  42. Zhang, X. “Effects of treatment of rats with indole-3-carbinol on apoptosisin the mammary gland and mammary adenocarcinomas.” Anticancer Res, 23(2003): 2473–2479.
  43. Amann, W. “Amenorrhea. Favorable effect of Agnus castus (Agnolyt) on amenorrhea". ZFA (Stuttgart), 58(4) (1982): 228–231.
  44. Bergmann, J., Luft, B., Boehmann, S., Runnebaum, B., Gerhard, I. “The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study.” Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd, 7(4) (2000): 190-199.
  45. Meng, Q., Qi, M., Chen, D.-Z., et al. “Supression of breast cancer invasion and migration by indole-3- carbinol: associated with up-regulation of BRCA1 and E-cadherin/ catenin complexes.” J Mol Med, 78(2000): 155-165.
  46. Fan, S., Meng, Q., Auborn, K., et al. “BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3- carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells.” Br J Cancer, 94(3) (2006): 407-426.



How to Cite

Волошина, Н. Н., Пащенко, С. Н., Волошин, Н. А., Щуров, Н. Ф., & Шах, Ф. (2015). Treatment and prevention of proliferative breast diseases. REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (26), 49–54.



Tumors and pretumoral pathology