DOI: https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2015.25.65-71

Risk of cardiovascular diseases in reproductive aging of women

П. Н. Веропотвелян, И. С. Цехмистренко, Н. П. Веропотвелян, Н. Ю. Троян

Abstract


Characteristics of reproductive age and association of clinical and endocrine changes in women of reproductive age from late to early menopause are presents in this article.

We consider the theory of aging: the theory of evolution on genetically programmed aging, free-radical, mitochondrial, elevating, immunological theory, the hypothesis of the existence of the genetic program of self-destruction.

The article focuses on the rigidity of the arterial wall that is directly related to the speed of the pulse wave, the definition of which is the standard measure of rigidity and can be used as a prognostic factor of death from cardiovascular diseases.

Modern researchers consider the biomechanical properties of the vessels (the rate of viscoelastic state artery, pulse wave velocity) as one of the criteria of biological age, because, illustrating the close relationship with chronological age in conjunction with other criteria, they characterize a slow or rapid type of aging women.

Menopause is accompanied by atherogenic changes in the lipid composition of the blood, namely, increased levels of LDL cholesterol and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol, and also an increase in the obesity prevalence, insulin resistance and diabetes, mostly type-2. Therefore, patients with hypertension in postmenopausal period often have a variety of the metabolic disorders that along with the increase in blood pressure potentially increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Manifestation of the pre-climacteric syndrome, the duration of which in 35% of women more than 5 years, is worsens hypertension, and in patients with hypertension is more common it pathological course.

Hot flushes development correlated with subclinical symptoms of cardiovascular diseases, which manifests endothelial dysfunction, calcification of the aorta, the increase in intima-media thickness of the carotid artery, increased levels of procoagulant factors dislipoproteinemia development.

Numerous publications have a lot of results on the potential use of hormonal drugs for the prevention of aging processes in the vessel wall in order to maintain the normal state of the cardiovascular system of women.


Keywords


reproductive aging; aging theory; risk of cardiovascular diseases; menopausal hormone therapy

References


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Alwan, T., Armstrong, D., Bettcher, T., Boerma, E., Branca, J., et al. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Geneva. World Health Organization (2011).

Capewell, S., Ford, E.S., Croft, J.B., Critchley, J.A., Greenlund, K.J., Labarthe, D.R. “Cardiovascular risk factor trends and potential for reducing coronary heart disease mortality in the United States of America.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(2010):120–130.

Thurston, R.C., Sulton-Tyrrell, K., Everson-Rose, S.A., Hess, R., Matthews, K.A. “Hot flashes and subclinical cardiovascular disease: Findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Heart Study.” Circulation, 118(2008):1234–1240.

Clarkson, T.B., Melendez, G.C., Appt, S.E. “Timing hypothesis for postmenopausal hormone therapy: its origin, current status, and future.” Menopause, 20(3) (2013):342–353.

Kakhturia, Y.В., Kalashnikova, M.F., Mel’nichenko, G.A. “Peculiarities of replacement hormonal therapy in females with endocrine pathology.” Ginekologiya, 1(1) (2002):34–41. (In Russ).

Rajkumar, C., Kingwel, B.A., Cameron, J.D., Waddell, T., et al. “Hormonal therapy increases arterial compliance in postmenopausal women.” J Am Coll Cardiol, 30(1997):350–356.

Schierbeck, L.L., Rejnmark, L., Tofteng, C.L., Stilgren, L., Eiken, P., et al. “Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial.” BMJ, 345(2012):e6409.

Zhuravel, A.S., Balan, V.E., Tkacheva, O.N., Sharashkina, N.V., et al. “Vascular aging women in menopause and the risk of cardiovascular disease.” Russian obstetrician-gynecologist, 2(Vol. 15) (2015):56–61.

Grady, D.I., Applegate, W., Bush, T., Furberg, C., Riggs, B., Hulley, S.B. “Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS): design, methods, and baseline characteristics.” Control Clin Trials, 4(1998):314–335.

De Villiers, T.J., Gass, M.L.S., Haines, C.J., Hall, J.E., Lobo, R.A., et al. “Global consensus statement on menopausal hormone therapy.” Climacteric, 16(2013): 203–204.

Sowers, M.R., Zheng, H., McConnell, D., Nan, B., Harlow, S., et al. “Follicle stimulating hormone and its rate of change in defining menopause transition stages.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93(10) (2008):3958–3964.

Harlow, S.D., Gass, M., Hall, J.E., Lobo, R., Maki, P., Rebar, R.W., et al. “STRAW 10 Collaborative Group. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop +10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging.” Menopause, 19(4) (2012):387–95.

Randolph, J.F. Jr, Zheng, H., Sowers, M.R., Crandall, C., Crawford, S., et al. “Change in follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol across the menopausal transition: effect of age at the final menstrual period.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 96(3) (2011):746–754.

Li, Z., Srivastava, P. Heat-shock proteins. Current Protocols in Immunology. Ed. вy John E. Coligan et al. Appendix 1:Appendix 1T (2004): PMID 18432918.

Fan, G.C., Ren, X., Qian, J., Yuan, Q., Nicolaou, P., et al. “Novel cardioprotective role of a small heat-shock protein, Hsp20, against ischemia/reperfusion injury.” Circulation, 111(14) (2005):1792–1799.

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Foksinski, M.L., Kotzbach, R., Szymanski, W., Olinski, R. “The level of typical biomarker of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy- 2’-deoxyguanosine is higher in uterine myomas than in control tissues and correlates with the size of the tumor.” Free Radic Biol Med, 1(29)(7) (2000): 597–601.

Druzhyna, N.M., Wilson, G.L., LeDoux, S.P. “Mitochondrial DNA repair in aging and disease.” Mech Ageing Dev, 129(7–8) (2008): 383–393.

Schmielau, J., Finn, O.J. “Activated granulocytes and granulocyte-derived hydrogen peroxide are the underlying mechanism of suppression oft-cell function in advanced cancer patients.” Cancer Res, 61(12) (2001):4756–4760.

Allen, T.J., Waldron, M.J., Casley, D., Jerums, G., Cooper, M.E. “Salt restriction reduces hyperfiltration, renal enlargement, and albuminuria in experimental diabetes.” Diabetologia, 280(13) (2005):12310–12315.

Szilard, L. “On the nature of the aging process.” Proc Nalt Acad Sci USA, 45(1) (1959):30–45.

Hayflick, L., Moorhead, P.S. “The serial cultivation of human diploid ceil strains.” Exp Cell Res, 253(1961):585–621.

Cong, Y.I., Shay, J.W. “Actions of human telomerase beyond telomeres.” Cell Res, 18(7) (2008):725–732.

Dilman, V.M. Big biologic clocks: Introduction to the integral medicine. Moscow. Znanie (1982):208 p. (In Russ).

Los, E.L., Deen, P.M.T., Robben, J.H. “Potential of nonpeptide (ant) > 3 agonists to rescue vasopressin V2 receptor mutants for the treatment of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.” Neuroendocrinol, 22(2010):393–399.

Gorczynski, R.M., Terzioglu, E. “Aging and the immune system.” Int Urol Nephrol, 40(4) (2008):1117–1125.

Skulachev, V.P. “Aging as an atavistic programme, which could be declined.” Vestnik RAN, 75(2005):831–843. (In Russ).

Laurent, S.I., Cockcroft, J., van Borte, I.L., Boutouyrie, P., Giannattasio, C., et al. “European network for non-invasive investigation of large arteries. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications.” Eur Heart J, 27(21) (2006):2588–2605.

Safar, M.E., Blacker, J. “Cardiovascular prevention: relationships between arterial aging and chronic drug treatment.” J Hum Hypertension, 25(9) (2011):524–531.

Bechlioulis, A., Naka, K., Papanikolaou, O., Kontostolis, E., et al. “Menopause and hormone therapy: from vascular endothelial function to cardiovascular disease.” J Cardiol, 50(2009):303–315.

Hodis, H.N., Mack, W.J., Lobo, R.A., Shoupe, D., Sevanian, A., et al. “Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial Research Group. Estrogen in the prevention of atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Ann Intern Med, 135(11) (2001):939–953.

Collins, P., Rosano, G.M., Casey, C., Daly, C.A., Gambacciani, M., et al. “Management of cardiovascular risk in the perimenopausal woman: a consensus statement of European cardiologists and gynecologists.” Eur Heart J, 28(2007):2028–2040.

Harlow, S.D., Gass, M., Hall, J.E., Lobo, R., Maki, P., et al. “Executive Summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop+10.” Menopause, 19(4) (2012):387–389.


GOST Style Citations


1. Segers, P., Kips, J.G., Vermeersch, S.I., Boutouyrie, P., Laurent, S., van Bortel, L.M. “A model expression for the ambulatory arterial stiffness index.” J Hypertens 31(1) (2013):211–212.

2. Alwan, T., Armstrong, D., Bettcher, T., Boerma, E., Branca, J., et al. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Geneva. World Health Organization (2011).

3. Capewell, S., Ford, E.S., Croft, J.B., Critchley, J.A., Greenlund, K.J., Labarthe, D.R. “Cardiovascular risk factor trends and potential for reducing coronary heart disease mortality in the United States of America.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(2010):120–130.

4. Thurston, R.C., Sulton-Tyrrell, K., Everson-Rose, S.A., Hess, R., Matthews, K.A. “Hot flashes and subclinical cardiovascular disease: Findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Heart Study.” Circulation, 118(2008):1234–1240.

5. Clarkson, T.B., Melendez, G.C., Appt, S.E. “Timing hypothesis for postmenopausal hormone therapy: its origin, current status, and future.” Menopause, 20(3) (2013):342–353.

6. Kakhturia, Y.В., Kalashnikova, M.F., Mel’nichenko, G.A. “Peculiarities of replacement hormonal therapy in females with endocrine pathology.” Ginekologiya, 1(1) (2002):34–41. (In Russ).

7. Rajkumar, C., Kingwel, B.A., Cameron, J.D., Waddell, T., et al. “Hormonal therapy increases arterial compliance in postmenopausal women.” J Am Coll Cardiol, 30(1997):350–356.

8. Schierbeck, L.L., Rejnmark, L., Tofteng, C.L., Stilgren, L., Eiken, P., et al. “Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial.” BMJ, 345(2012):e6409.

9. Zhuravel, A.S., Balan, V.E., Tkacheva, O.N., Sharashkina, N.V., et al. “Vascular aging women in menopause and the risk of cardiovascular disease.” Russian obstetrician-gynecologist, 2(Vol. 15) (2015):56–61.

10. Grady, D.I., Applegate, W., Bush, T., Furberg, C., Riggs, B., Hulley, S.B. “Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS): design, methods, and baseline characteristics.” Control Clin Trials, 4(1998):314–335.

11. De Villiers, T.J., Gass, M.L.S., Haines, C.J., Hall, J.E., Lobo, R.A., et al. “Global consensus statement on menopausal hormone therapy.” Climacteric, 16(2013): 203–204.

12. Sowers, M.R., Zheng, H., McConnell, D., Nan, B., Harlow, S., et al. “Follicle stimulating hormone and its rate of change in defining menopause transition stages.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93(10) (2008):3958–3964.

13. Harlow, S.D., Gass, M., Hall, J.E., Lobo, R., Maki, P., Rebar, R.W., et al. “STRAW 10 Collaborative Group. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop +10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging.” Menopause, 19(4) (2012):387–95.

14. Randolph, J.F. Jr, Zheng, H., Sowers, M.R., Crandall, C., Crawford, S., et al. “Change in follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol across the menopausal transition: effect of age at the final menstrual period.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 96(3) (2011):746–754.

15. Li, Z., Srivastava, P. Heat-shock proteins. Current Protocols in Immunology. Ed. вy John E. Coligan et al. Appendix 1:Appendix 1T (2004): PMID 18432918.

16. Fan, G.C., Ren, X., Qian, J., Yuan, Q., Nicolaou, P., et al. “Novel cardioprotective role of a small heat-shock protein, Hsp20, against ischemia/reperfusion injury.” Circulation, 111(14) (2005):1792–1799.

17. Olinski, B., Sijmek, A., Rozalski, R., Gackowski, D., Foksinski, M., et al. “Oxidative damage to DNA and antioxidant status in aging and age-related diseases.” Acta Biochim Pol, 54(1) (2007):11–26.

18. Foksinski, M.L., Kotzbach, R., Szymanski, W., Olinski, R. “The level of typical biomarker of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy- 2’-deoxyguanosine is higher in uterine myomas than in control tissues and correlates with the size of the tumor.” Free Radic Biol Med, 1(29)(7) (2000): 597–601.

19. Druzhyna, N.M., Wilson, G.L., LeDoux, S.P. “Mitochondrial DNA repair in aging and disease.” Mech Ageing Dev, 129(7–8) (2008): 383–393.

20. Schmielau, J., Finn, O.J. “Activated granulocytes and granulocyte-derived hydrogen peroxide are the underlying mechanism of suppression oft-cell function in advanced cancer patients.” Cancer Res, 61(12) (2001):4756–4760.

21. Allen, T.J., Waldron, M.J., Casley, D., Jerums, G., Cooper, M.E. “Salt restriction reduces hyperfiltration, renal enlargement, and albuminuria in experimental diabetes.” Diabetologia, 280(13) (2005):12310–12315.

22. Szilard, L. “On the nature of the aging process.” Proc Nalt Acad Sci USA, 45(1) (1959):30–45.

23. Hayflick, L., Moorhead, P.S. “The serial cultivation of human diploid ceil strains.” Exp Cell Res, 253(1961):585–621.

24. Cong, Y.I., Shay, J.W. “Actions of human telomerase beyond telomeres.” Cell Res, 18(7) (2008):725–732.

25. Dilman, V.M. Big biologic clocks: Introduction to the integral medicine. Moscow. Znanie (1982):208 p. (In Russ).

26. Los, E.L., Deen, P.M.T., Robben, J.H. “Potential of nonpeptide (ant) > 3 agonists to rescue vasopressin V2 receptor mutants for the treatment of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.” Neuroendocrinol, 22(2010):393–399.

27. Gorczynski, R.M., Terzioglu, E. “Aging and the immune system.” Int Urol Nephrol, 40(4) (2008):1117–1125.

28. Skulachev, V.P. “Aging as an atavistic programme, which could be declined.” Vestnik RAN, 75(2005):831–843. (In Russ).

29. Laurent, S.I., Cockcroft, J., van Borte, I.L., Boutouyrie, P., Giannattasio, C., et al. “European network for non-invasive investigation of large arteries. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications.” Eur Heart J, 27(21) (2006):2588–2605.

30. Safar, M.E., Blacker, J. “Cardiovascular prevention: relationships between arterial aging and chronic drug treatment.” J Hum Hypertension, 25(9) (2011):524–531.

31. Bechlioulis, A., Naka, K., Papanikolaou, O., Kontostolis, E., et al. “Menopause and hormone therapy: from vascular endothelial function to cardiovascular disease.” J Cardiol, 50(2009):303–315.

32. Hodis, H.N., Mack, W.J., Lobo, R.A., Shoupe, D., Sevanian, A., et al. “Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial Research Group. Estrogen in the prevention of atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Ann Intern Med, 135(11) (2001):939–953.

33. Collins, P., Rosano, G.M., Casey, C., Daly, C.A., Gambacciani, M., et al. “Management of cardiovascular risk in the perimenopausal woman: a consensus statement of European cardiologists and gynecologists.” Eur Heart J, 28(2007):2028–2040.

34. Harlow, S.D., Gass, M., Hall, J.E., Lobo, R., Maki, P., et al. “Executive Summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop+10.” Menopause, 19(4) (2012):387–389.





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