Vulvovaginal candidiasis: evolution of a therapeutic approachs

М. В. Медведев

Abstract


Vulvovaginal candidiasis – one of the most common causes of vaginitis symptoms among women of reproductive age: 75% of women faced with this disease at least once in their lives. Fungi Candida is well known cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis. 85–95% of all strains of yeasts isolated from patients with vaginal candidiasis belong to Candida albicans. It is proved butoconazole that has a high efficacy in eradicating fungi Candida and high speed relief of symptoms. A bioadhesive technology VagiSite (emulsion “water in oil”), used in the preparation of a 2% butoconazole nitrate Gynofort allows butoconazole permanently retained on wet vaginal mucous, slowly releasing


Keywords


vulvovaginal candidiasis; fungi Candida; butoconazole; technology VagiSite; biofilm; Gynofort

References


Sobel, J. D. “Vulvovaginal candidosis.” Lancet, 9577(2007) (Vol. 369): 1961–1971.

E ckert, L.O., Hawes, S.E., Stevens, C.E., Koutsky, L.A., et al. “Vulvovaginal candidiasis: clinical manifestations, risk factors, management algorithm.” Obstet Gynecol, 5(92) (1998): 757–765.

O dds, F.C., Webster, C.E., Mayuranathan, P., Simmons, P.D. “Candida concentrations in the vagina and their association with signs and symptoms of vaginal candidosis.” J Med Vet Mycol, 5(26) (1988): 277–283.

Landers, D.V., Wiesenfeld, H.C., Heine, R.P., Krohn, M.A., Hillier, S.L. “Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 4(190) (2004): 1004–1010.

N yirjesy, P., Alexander, A.B., Weitz, M.V. “Vaginal Candida parapsilosis: pathogen or bystander?” Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol, 1(13) (2005): 37–41.

Soloviova, A.V., Plaksina, N.D., Silvestrova, G.A. “Vulvovaginal candidiasis: how to avoid recurrence.” Female doctor, 2(52) (2014): 49–55.

Beigi, R.H., Meyn, L.A., Moore, D.M., Krohn, M.A., Hillier, S.L. “Vaginal yeast colonization in non-pregnant women: a longitudinal study.” Obstet Gynecol, 5(104) (2004): 926–930.

Geiger, A.M., Foxman, B. “Risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis: a case-control study among university students.” Epidemiology, 2(7) (1996): 182–187.

C haim, W., Foxman, B., Sobel, J.D. “Association of recurrent vaginal candidiasis and secretory ABO and Lewis phenotype.” J Infect Dis, 3(176) (1997): 828–830.

C otch, M.F., Hillier, S.L., Gibbs, R.S., Eschenbach, D.A. “Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2(178) (1998): 374–380.

D ennerstein, G.J., Ellis, D.H. “Oestrogen, glycogen and vaginal candidiasis.” Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 3(41) (2001): 326–328.

T arry, W., Fisher, M., Shen, S., Mawhinney, M. “Candida albicans: the estrogen target for vaginal colonization.” J Surg Res, 2(129) (2005): 278–282.

Foxman, B. “The epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis: risk factors.” Am J Public Health, 3(80) (1990): 329–331.

M ahmoudi Rad, M., Zafarghandi, S., Abbasabadi, B., Tavallaee M. “The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2(155) (2011): 199–203.

Fidel, P.L. Jr., Vazquez, J. A., Sobel, J.D. “Candida glabrata: review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease with comparison to C. albicans.” Clin Microbiol Rev, 1(12) (1999): 80–96.

D e Leon, E.M., Jacober, S.J., Sobel, J.D., Foxman, B. “Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal Candida colonization in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.” BMC Infect Dis, 2(2002): 1.

Goswami, R., Dadhwal, V., Tejaswi, S., Datta, K., Paul, A., et al. “Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status.” J Infect, 2(41) (2000): 162–166.

D onders, G.G., Prenen, H., Verbeke, G., Reybrouck R. “Impaired tolerance for glucose in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 4(187) (2002): 989–993.

Spinillo, A., Capuzzo, E., Acciano, S., De Santolo, A., Zara, F. “Effect of antibiotic use on the prevalence of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1(180) Pt. 1 (1999): 14–7.

W ilton, L., Kollarova, M., Heeley, E., Shakir S. “Relative risk of vaginal candidiasis after use of antibiotics compared with antidepressants in women: postmarketing surveillance data in England.” Drug Saf, 8(26) (2003): 589–597.

P irotta, M.V., Gunn, J.M., Chondros, P. “"Not thrush again!" Women's experience of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis.” Med J Aust, 1(179) (2003): 43–46.

Bluestein, D., Rutledge, C., Lumsden, L. “Predicting the occurrence of antibiotic-induced candidal vaginitis (AICV).” Fam Pract Res J, 3(11) (1991): 319–326.

P ultz, N.J., Stiefel, U., Ghannoum, M., Helfand, M.S., Donskey, C.J. “Effect of parenteral antibiotic administration on establishment of intestinal colonization by Candida glabrata in adult mice.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1(49) (2005): 438–440.

Bradshaw, C.S., Morton, A.N., Garland, S.M., Morris, M. B., et al. “Higher-risk behavioral practices associated with bacterial vaginosis compared with vaginal candidiasis.” Obstet Gynecol, 1(106) (2005): 105–114.

R eed, B.D., Zazove, P., Pierson, C.L., Gorenflo, D.W., Horrocks, J. “Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis.” J Womens Health (Larchmt), 10(12) (2003): 979–989.

Sobel, J. D. “Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 7(152) Pt. 2 (1985): 924–935.

M iles, M.R., Olsen, L., Rogers, A. “Recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Importance of an intestinal reservoir.” JAMA , 17(238) (1977): 1836–1837.

C hong, P.P., Lee, Y.L., Tan, B.C., Ng, K.P. “Genetic relatedness of Candida strains isolated from women with vaginal candidiasis in Malaysia.” J Med Microbiol, 8(52) (2003): 657–666.

Garcia-Tamayo, J., Castillo, G., Martinez, A.J. “Human genital candidiasis: histochemistry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.” Acta Cytol, 1(26) (1982): 7–14.

King, R.D., Lee, J.C., Morris, A.L. “Adherence of Candida albicans and other Candida species to mucosal epithelial cells.” Infect Immun, 2(27) (1980): 667–674.

Bertholf, M.E., Stafford, M.J. “Colonization of Candida albicans in vagina, rectum, and mouth.” J Fam Pract, 5(16) (1983): 919–924.

A l-Hedaithy, S.S. “Spectrum and proteinase production of yeasts causing vaginitis in Saudi Arabian women.” Med Sci Monit, 7(8) (2002): 498–501.

Zarnowski, R., Westler, W.M., Lacmbouh, G.A., Marita, J. M., Bothe J. R., et al. “Novel entries in a fungal biofilm matrix encyclopedia.” MBio, 4(5) (2014): e01333–14.

Seidman, L.S., Skokos, C.K. “An evaluation of butoconazole nitrate 2% site release vaginal cream (Gynazole-1) compared to fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan) in the time to relief of symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.” Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol, 4(13) (2005): 197–206.

Van Heusden, A.M., Merkus, H.M., Euser, R., Verhoeff, A. “A randomized, comparative study of a single oral dose of fluconazole versus a single topical dose of clotrimazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis among general practitioners and gynaecologists.” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2(55) (1994): 123–127.

Brown, D., Henzl, M.R., Kaufman, R.H. “Butoconazole nitrate 2% for vulvovaginal candidiasis. New, single-dose vaginal cream formulation vs. seven-day treatment with miconazole nitrate. Gynazole 1 Study Group.” J Reprod Med, 11(44) (1999): 933–938.

E xpert Board of Polish Gynecological Society “The statement of Polish Gynecological Society Experts on the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis with prolonged releasing 2% butoconazole nitrate vaginal cream--state of art in 2008.” Ginekol Pol, 4(80) (2009): 303–311.

Thompson, D., Saul Levinson, R. “The bioadhesive system of local drug administration.” Women's Health, 3(27) (2006): 1–4.


GOST Style Citations


1. Sobel, J. D. “Vulvovaginal candidosis.” Lancet, 9577(2007) (Vol. 369): 1961–1971.

2. E ckert, L.O., Hawes, S.E., Stevens, C.E., Koutsky, L.A., et al. “Vulvovaginal candidiasis: clinical manifestations, risk factors, management algorithm.” Obstet Gynecol, 5(92) (1998): 757–765.

3. O dds, F.C., Webster, C.E., Mayuranathan, P., Simmons, P.D. “Candida concentrations in the vagina and their association with signs and symptoms of vaginal candidosis.” J Med Vet Mycol, 5(26) (1988): 277–283.

4. Landers, D.V., Wiesenfeld, H.C., Heine, R.P., Krohn, M.A., Hillier, S.L. “Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 4(190) (2004): 1004–1010.

5. N yirjesy, P., Alexander, A.B., Weitz, M.V. “Vaginal Candida parapsilosis: pathogen or bystander?” Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol, 1(13) (2005): 37–41.

6. Соловьева, А.В. Вульвовагинальный кандидоз: как избежать рецидивов / А.В. Соловьева, Н.Д. Плаксина, Г.А. Сильвестрова // Жіночий лікар. — 2014. — № 2 (52). — С. 49–55.

7. Beigi, R.H., Meyn, L.A., Moore, D.M., Krohn, M.A., Hillier, S.L. “Vaginal yeast colonization in non-pregnant women: a longitudinal study.” Obstet Gynecol, 5(104) (2004): 926–930.

8. Geiger, A.M., Foxman, B. “Risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis: a case-control study among university students.” Epidemiology, 2(7) (1996): 182–187.

9. C haim, W., Foxman, B., Sobel, J.D. “Association of recurrent vaginal candidiasis and secretory ABO and Lewis phenotype.” J Infect Dis, 3(176) (1997): 828–830.

10. C otch, M.F., Hillier, S.L., Gibbs, R.S., Eschenbach, D.A. “Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2(178) (1998): 374–380.

11. D ennerstein, G.J., Ellis, D.H. “Oestrogen, glycogen and vaginal candidiasis.” Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 3(41) (2001): 326–328.

12. T arry, W., Fisher, M., Shen, S., Mawhinney, M. “Candida albicans: the estrogen target for vaginal colonization.” J Surg Res, 2(129) (2005): 278–282.

13. Foxman, B. “The epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis: risk factors.” Am J Public Health, 3(80) (1990): 329–331.

14. M ahmoudi Rad, M., Zafarghandi, S., Abbasabadi, B., Tavallaee M. “The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2(155) (2011): 199–203.

15. Fidel, P.L. Jr., Vazquez, J. A., Sobel, J.D. “Candida glabrata: review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease with comparison to C. albicans.” Clin Microbiol Rev, 1(12) (1999): 80–96.

16. D e Leon, E.M., Jacober, S.J., Sobel, J.D., Foxman, B. “Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal Candida colonization in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.” BMC Infect Dis, 2(2002): 1.

17. Goswami, R., Dadhwal, V., Tejaswi, S., Datta, K., Paul, A., et al. “Species-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status.” J Infect, 2(41) (2000): 162–166.

18. D onders, G.G., Prenen, H., Verbeke, G., Reybrouck R. “Impaired tolerance for glucose in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 4(187) (2002): 989–993.

19. Spinillo, A., Capuzzo, E., Acciano, S., De Santolo, A., Zara, F. “Effect of antibiotic use on the prevalence of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1(180) Pt. 1 (1999): 14–7.

20. W ilton, L., Kollarova, M., Heeley, E., Shakir S. “Relative risk of vaginal candidiasis after use of antibiotics compared with antidepressants in women: postmarketing surveillance data in England.” Drug Saf, 8(26) (2003): 589–597.

21. P irotta, M.V., Gunn, J.M., Chondros, P. “"Not thrush again!" Women's experience of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis.” Med J Aust, 1(179) (2003): 43–46.

22. Bluestein, D., Rutledge, C., Lumsden, L. “Predicting the occurrence of antibiotic-induced candidal vaginitis (AICV).” Fam Pract Res J, 3(11) (1991): 319–326.

23. P ultz, N.J., Stiefel, U., Ghannoum, M., Helfand, M.S., Donskey, C.J. “Effect of parenteral antibiotic administration on establishment of intestinal colonization by Candida glabrata in adult mice.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1(49) (2005): 438–440.

24. Bradshaw, C.S., Morton, A.N., Garland, S.M., Morris, M. B., et al. “Higher-risk behavioral practices associated with bacterial vaginosis compared with vaginal candidiasis.” Obstet Gynecol, 1(106) (2005): 105–114.

25. R eed, B.D., Zazove, P., Pierson, C.L., Gorenflo, D.W., Horrocks, J. “Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis.” J Womens Health (Larchmt), 10(12) (2003): 979–989.

26. Sobel, J. D. “Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.” Am J Obstet Gynecol, 7(152) Pt. 2 (1985): 924–935.

27. M iles, M.R., Olsen, L., Rogers, A. “Recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Importance of an intestinal reservoir.” JAMA , 17(238) (1977): 1836–1837.

28. C hong, P.P., Lee, Y.L., Tan, B.C., Ng, K.P. “Genetic relatedness of Candida strains isolated from women with vaginal candidiasis in Malaysia.” J Med Microbiol, 8(52) (2003): 657–666.

29. Garcia-Tamayo, J., Castillo, G., Martinez, A.J. “Human genital candidiasis: histochemistry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.” Acta Cytol, 1(26) (1982): 7–14.

30. King, R.D., Lee, J.C., Morris, A.L. “Adherence of Candida albicans and other Candida species to mucosal epithelial cells.” Infect Immun, 2(27) (1980): 667–674.

31. Bertholf, M.E., Stafford, M.J. “Colonization of Candida albicans in vagina, rectum, and mouth.” J Fam Pract, 5(16) (1983): 919–924.

32. A l-Hedaithy, S.S. “Spectrum and proteinase production of yeasts causing vaginitis in Saudi Arabian women.” Med Sci Monit, 7(8) (2002): 498–501.

33. Zarnowski, R., Westler, W.M., Lacmbouh, G.A., Marita, J. M., Bothe J. R., et al. “Novel entries in a fungal biofilm matrix encyclopedia.” MBio, 4(5) (2014): e01333–14.

34. Seidman, L.S., Skokos, C.K. “An evaluation of butoconazole nitrate 2% site release vaginal cream (Gynazole-1) compared to fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan) in the time to relief of symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.” Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol, 4(13) (2005): 197–206.

35. Van Heusden, A.M., Merkus, H.M., Euser, R., Verhoeff, A. “A randomized, comparative study of a single oral dose of fluconazole versus a single topical dose of clotrimazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis among general practitioners and gynaecologists.” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2(55) (1994): 123–127.

36. Brown, D., Henzl, M.R., Kaufman, R.H. “Butoconazole nitrate 2% for vulvovaginal candidiasis. New, single-dose vaginal cream formulation vs. seven-day treatment with miconazole nitrate. Gynazole 1 Study Group.” J Reprod Med, 11(44) (1999): 933–938.

37. E xpert Board of Polish Gynecological Society “The statement of Polish Gynecological Society Experts on the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis with prolonged releasing 2% butoconazole nitrate vaginal cream--state of art in 2008.” Ginekol Pol, 4(80) (2009): 303–311.

38. Томпсон, Д. Биоадгезивная система локального введения лекарственного препарата / Д. Томпсон, Р. Сол Левинсон // Здоровье женщины. — 2006. — № 3(27). — С. 1–4.





DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2015.22.29-32

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2411-1295 (Online), ISSN 2309-4117 (Print)