Consensus on current management of endometriosis

Neil P. Johnson, Lone Hummelshoj

Abstract


Study question: Is there a global consensus on the management of endometriosis that considers the views of women with endometriosis?
Summary answer: It was possible to produce an international consensus statement on the current management of endometriosisthrough engagement of representatives of national and international, medical and non-medical societies with an interest in endometriosis.
What is known already: Management of endometriosis anywhere in the world has been based partially on evidence-based practices and partially on unsubstantiated therapies and approaches. Several guidelines have been developed by a number of national and international bodies, yet areas of controversy and uncertainty remain, not least due to a paucity of firm evidence.
Study design, size, duration: A consensus meeting, in conjunction with a pre- and post-meeting process, was undertaken.
Participants/materials, setting, methods: A consensus meeting was held on 8 September 2011, in conjunction withthe 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in Montpellier, France. A rigorous pre- and post-meeting process, involving 56 representatives of34 national and international, medical and non-medical organizations from a range of disciplines, led to this consensus statement.
Main results and the role of chance: A total of 69 consensus statements were developed. Seven statements had unanimous consensus; however, none of the statements were made without expression of a caveat about the strength of the statement or thestatement itself. Only two statements failed to achieve majority consensus. The statements covered global considerations, the role of endometriosis organizations, support groups, centers or networks of expertise, the impact of endometriosis throughout a woman’s life course,and a full range of treatment options for pain, infertility and other symptoms related to endometriosis.
Limitations, reasons for caution: This consensus process diff ered from that of formal guideline development. A diff erentgroup of international experts from those participating in this process would likely have yielded subtly diff erent consensus statements.
Wider implications of the findings: This is the first time that a large, global, consortium, representing 34 major stake holding organizations from five continents, has convened to systematically evaluate the best available current evidence on the managementof endometriosis, and to reach consensus. In addition to 18 international medical organizations, representatives from 16 national endometriosis organizations were involved, including lay support groups, thus generating input from women who suff er from endometriosis.


Keywords


endometriosis; evidence based; World Endometriosis Society

References


Abbott J, Hawe J, Hunter D, Holmes M, Finn P, Garry R Laparoscopic excision of endometriosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: 878–884.

Abou-Setta AM, Al-Inany HG, Farquhar CM Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for symptomatic endometriosis following surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 4: CD005072.

Adamson GD Endometriosis classifi cation: an update. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2011; 23: 213–220.

Adamson GD, Pasta DJ Endometriosis fertility index: the new, validated endometriosis staging system. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 1609–1615.

Adamson GD, Kennedy SH, Hummelshoj L Creating solutions in endometriosis: global collaboration through the World Endometriosis Research Foundation. J Endometriosis 2010; 2: 3–6.

Al-Jefout M, Dezarnaulds G, Cooper M, Tokushige N, Luscombe GM, Markham R, Fraser IS Diagnosis of endometriosis by detection of nerve fi bres in an endometrial biopsy: a double blind study. Hum Reprod2009; 24: 3019–3024.

Al Kadri H, Hassan S, Al-Fozan HM, Hajeer A Hormone therapy for endometriosis and surgical menopause.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD005997.

Allen C, Hopewell S, Prentice A, Gregory D Nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs for pain in women with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 2: CD004753.

Aygen MA, Atakul T, Oner G, Ozgun MT, Sahin Y, Ozturk F A prospective trial comparing letrozole versus gonadotropins for ovulation induction in patients with histologically documented endometriosis. Hum Reprod2010; 25 (S1): 6.

Barnhart K, Dunsmoor-Su R, Coutifaris C Eff ect of endometriosis on in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril2002; 77: 1148–1155.

Barri PN, Coroleu B, Tur R, Barri-Soldevila PN, Rodríguez I Endometriosis-associated infertility: surgery and IVF, a comprehensive therapeutic approach. Reprod Biomed Online 2010; 21: 179–185.

Bayoglu TY, Dilbaz B, Altinbas SK, Dilbaz S Postoperative medical treatment of chronic pelvic pain related to severe endometriosis: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 492–496.

Benschop L, Farquhar C, Van der Poel N, Heineman MJ Interventions for women with endometrioma prior to assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 11: CD008571.

Biacchiardi CP, Piane LD, Camanni M, Deltetto F, Delpiano EM, Marchino GL, Gennarelli G, Revelli ALaparoscopic stripping of endometriomas negatively aff ects ovarian follicular reserve even if performed by experienced surgeons. Reprod Biomed Online 2011; 23: 740–746.

Bianchi PH, Pereira RM, Zanatta A, Alegretti JR, Motta EL, Serafi ni PC Extensive excision of deep infi ltrative endometriosis before in vitro fertilization signifi cantly improves pregnancy rates. J Minim Invasive Gynecol2009; 16: 174–180.

Bokor A, Kyama CM, Vercruysse L, Fassbender A, Gevaert O, Vodolazkaia A, De Moor B, Fülöp V, D’Hooghe T Density of small diameter sensory nerve fi bres in endometrium: a semi–invasive diagnostic test for minimal to mild endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 3025–3032.

Brosens I, Brosens JJ, Fusi L, Al-Sabbagh M, Kuroda K, Benagiano G Risks of adverse pregnancy outcome in endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 30–35.

Brown J, Pan A, Hart RJ Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues for pain associated with endometriosis.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 12: CD008475.

Brown J, Kives S, Akhtar M Progestagens and anti-progestagens for pain associated with endometriosis.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 3: CD002122.

Bush D Endometriosis New Zealand–a national organisation pivotal to facilitating the wellness of women. World Endometriosis Soc eJournal 2009; 11: 6–9.

Chapron C, Fritel X, Dubuisson JB Fertility after laparoscopic management of deep endometriosis infi ltrating the uterosacral ligaments. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 329–332.

Cosson M, Querleu D, Donnez J, Madelenat P, Koninckxz P, Audebert A, Manhes HDienogest is as eff ective as triptorelin in the treatment of endometriosis after laparoscopic surgery: results of a prospective, multicenter, randomized study. Fertil Steril 2002; 77: 684–692.

Costello MF Systematic review of the treatment of ovulatory infertility with clomiphene citrate and intrauterine insemination. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;44:93–102.

Crosignani PG, Luciano A, Ray A, Bergqvist A Subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate versus leuprolide acetate in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Hum Reprod 2006; 21: 248–256.

Davis L, Kennedy SS, Moore J, Prentice A Modern combined oral contraceptives for pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD001019.

de Ziegler D, Gayet V, Aubriot FX, Fauque P, Streuli I, Wolf JP, de Mouzon J, Chapron C Use of oral contraceptives in women with endometriosis before assisted reproduction treatment improves outcomes. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 2796–2799.

D’Hooghe T, Hummelshoj L Multi-disciplinary centres/networks of excellence for endometriosis management and research: a proposal. Hum Reprod 2006; 21: 2743–2748.

D’Hooghe TM, Denys B, Spiessens C, Meuleman C, Debrock S Is the endometriosis recurrence rate increased after ovarian hyperstimulation? Fertil Steril 2006; 86: 283–290.

Donnez J, Squiffl et J Complications, pregnancy and recurrence in a prospective series of 500 patients operated on by the shaving technique for deep rectovaginal endometriotic nodules. Hum Reprod 2010; 25: 1949–1958.

Dovey S, Sanfi lippo J Endometriosis and the adolescent. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2010; 53: 420–428.

Fagervold B, Jenssen M, Hummelshoj L, Moen MH Life after a diagnosis with endometriosis – a 15 years follow-up study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009; 88: 914–919.

Farmer JE, Prentice A, Breeze A, Ahmad G, Duff y JMN, Watson A, Pick A Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues for endometriosis: bone mineral density. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD001297.

Fernando S, Breheny S, Jaques AM, Halliday JL, Baker G, Healy D Preterm birth, ovarian endometriomata, and assisted reproduction technologies. Fertil Steril 2009; 91: 325–330.

Ferrero S, Anserini P, Abbamonte LH, Ragni N, Camerini G, Remorgida V Fertility after bowel resection for endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2009; 92: 41–46.

Ferrero S, Gillott DJ, Venturini PL, Remorgida V Use of aromatase inhibitors to treat endometriosis-related pain symptoms: a systematic review. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011; 9: 89.

Flower A, Liu JP, Lewith G, Little P, Li Q Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 5: CD006568.

Ford J, English J, Miles WA, Giannopolous T Pain, quality of life and complications following the radical resection of rectovaginal endometriosis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 111: 353–356.

French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, Reggars JW, Esterman AJ Superfi cial heat or cold for low back pain.Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD004750

Furness S, Yap C, Farquhar C, Cheong YC Pre and post-operative medical therapy for endometriosis surgery.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD003678.

Giudice LC Clinical practice: endometriosis. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 2389–2398.

Guo SW Recurrence of endometriosis and its control. Hum Reprod Update 2009; 15: 441–461.

Guo SW, Hummelshoj L, Olive DL, Bulun SE, D’Hooghe TM, Evers JL A call for more transparency of registered clinical trials on endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 1247–1254.

Guo SW, He W, Zhao T, Liu X, Zhang T Clinical trials and trial-like studies on the use of traditional Chinese medicine to treat endometriosis. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol 2010; 5: 533–555.

Guo SW, Liu M, Shen F, Liu X Use of mifepristone to treat endometriosis: a review of clinical trials and trial-like studies conducted in China. Womens Health 2011; 7: 51–70.

Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ GRADE Working Group. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ2008; 336: 924–926.

Guzick DS, Huang LS, Broadman BA, Nealon M, Hornstein MD Randomized trial of leuprolide versus continuous oral contraceptives in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1568–1573.

Harada T, Momoeda M, Taketani Y, Hoshiai H, Terakawa N Low-dose oral contraceptive pill for dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Fertil Steril 2008; 90: 1583–1588.

Harada T, Momoeda M, Taketani Y, Aso T, Fukunaga M, Hagino H, Terakawa N Dienogest is as eff ective as intranasal buserelin acetate for the relief of pain symptoms associated with endometriosis—a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2009; 91: 675–681.

Hart RJ, Hickey M, Maouris P, Buckett W Excisional surgery versus ablative surgery for ovarian endometriomata.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 2: CD004992.

Healey M, Ang WC, Cheng C Surgical treatment of endometriosis: a prospective randomized double-blinded trial comparing excision and ablation. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 2536–2540.

Hughes E, Brown J, Collins JJ, Farquhar C, Fedorkow DM, Vanderkerchove P Ovulation suppression for endometriosis for women with subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD000155.

Jacobson TZ, Duff y JM, Barlow D, Koninckx PR, Garry R Laparoscopic surgery for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 4: CD001300.

Jacobson TZ, Duff y JM, Barlow D, Farquhar C, Koninckx PR, Olive D Laparoscopic surgery for subfertility associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 1: CD001398.

Johnson NP, Farquhar CM, Hadden WE, Suckling J, Yu Y, Sadler L The FLUSH trial—fl ushing with lipiodol for unexplained (and endometriosis-related) subfertility by hysterosalpingography: a randomized trial. Hum Reprod2004; 19: 2043–2051.

Kennedy S, Bergqvist A, Chapron C, D’Hooghe T, Dunselman G, Greb R, Hummelshoj L, Prentice A, Saridogan E ESHRE Special Interest Group for Endometriosis and Endometrium Guideline Development Group. ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 2698–2704.

Köhler G, Faustmann TA, Gerlinger C, Seitz C, Mueck AO A dose-ranging study to determine the effi cacy and safety of 1, 2, and 4mg of dienogest daily for endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010; 108: 21–25.

Koninckx PR, Timmermans B, Meuleman C, Penninckx F Complications of CO2-laser endoscopic excision of deep endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1996; 11: 2263–2268.

Koninckx PR, Craessaerts M, Timmerman D, Cornillie F, Kennedy S Anti-TNF-alpha treatment for deep endometriosis-associated pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hum Reprod 2008; 23: 2017–2023.

Koninckx PR, Ussia A, Adamyan L, Wattiez A, Donnez J Deep endometriosis: defi nition, diagnosis, and treatment. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 564–571.

Koppan A, Hamori J, Vranics I, Garai J, Kriszbacher I, Bodis J, Rebek-Nagy G, Koppan M Pelvic pain in endometriosis: painkillers or sport to alleviate symptoms? Acta Physiol Lung 2010; 97: 234–239.

Kroon B, Johnson N, Chapman M, Yazdani A, Hart R Australasian CREI Consensus Expert Panel on Trial evidence (ACCEPT) group. Fibroids in infertility–consensus statement from ACCEPT (Australasian CREI Consensus Expert Panel on Trial evidence). Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2011; 51: 289–295.

Laschke MW, Menger MD Anti-angiogenetic treatment strategies for the therapy of endometriosis. Hum Reprod Update 2012;18:682–702.

Laufer MR, Goitein L, Bush M, Cramer DW, Emans SJ Prevalence of endometriosis in adolescent girls with chronic pelvic pain not responding to conventional therapy. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 1997;10:199–202.

Lessey DA Assessment of endometrial receptivity. Fertil Steril 2011;96:522–529.

Liu X, Guo SW A pilot study on the off -label use of valproic acid to treat adenomyosis. Fertil Steril 2008; 89: 246–250.

Lu D, Song H, Li Y, Clarke J, Shi G Pentoxifylline for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2012; 1: CD007677.

Lucas P Cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain. J Psychoactive Drugs 2012; 44: 125–133.

Maubon A, Faury A, Kapella M, Pouquet M, Piver P Uterine junctional zone at magnetic resonance imaging: a predictor of in vitro fertilization implantation failure. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2010; 36: 611–618.

May KE, Conduit-Hulbert SA, Villar J, Kirtley S, Kennedy SH, Becker CM Peripheral biomarkers of endometriosis: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update 2010; 16: 651–674.

Mier-Cabrera J, Genera-Garcia M, De la Jara-Diaz J, Perichart-Perera O, Vadillo-Ortega F, Hernandez-Guerrero C Eff ect of vitamins C and E supplementation on peripheral oxidative stress markers and pregnancy rate in women with endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008; 100: 252–256.

Moen MH, Rees M, Brincat M, Erel T, Gambacciani M, Lambrinoudaki I, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Tremollieres F, Vujovic S, Rozenberg S European Menopause and Andropause Society. EMAS position statement: Managing the menopause in women with a past history of endometriosis. Maturitas 2010; 67: 94–97.

Momoeda M, Harada T, Terakawa N, Aso T, Fukunaga M, Hagino H, Taketani Y Long-term use of dienogest for the treatment of endometriosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2009; 35: 1069–1076.

Moravek MB, Ward EA, Lebovic DI Thiazolidinediones as therapy for endometriosis: a case series. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2009; 68: 167–170.

Mutihir JT, Nyango DD Massive haemoperitoneum from endometriosis masquerading as ruptured ectopic pregnancy: case report. Niger J Clin Pract 2010; 13: 477–479.

Nnoaham K, Hummelshoj L, Webster P, D’Hooghe T, de Cicco Nardone F, de Cicco Nardone C, Jenkinson C, Kennedy SH, Zondervan KT World Endometriosis Research Foundation Global Study of Women. Impact of endometriosis on quality of life and work productivity: A multi-centre study across 10

Nnoaham KE, Hummelshoj L, Kennedy SH, Jenkinson C, Zondervan KT World Endometriosis Research Foundation Women. Developing symptom-based predictive models of endometriosis as a clinical screening tool: results from a multicenter study. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 692–701.

Pabona JM, Simmen FA, Nikiforov MA, Zhuang D, Shankar K, Velarde MC, Zelenko Z, Giudice LC, Simmen RC Krüppel-like factor 9 and progesterone receptor coregulation of decidualizing endometrial stromal cells: implications for the pathogenesis of endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: E376-E392.

Pearce CL, Templeman C, Rossing MA, Lee A, Near AM, Webb PM, Nagle CM, Doherty JA, Cushing-Haugen KL, Wicklund KG et al. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 385–394.

Pellicano M, Bramante S, Guida M, Bifulco G, Di Spiezio Sardo A, Cirillo D, Nappi C Ovarian endometrioma: postoperative adhesions following bipolar coagulation and suture. Fertil Steril 2008; 89: 796–799.

Petraglia F, Hornung D, Seitz C, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Luisi S, Lazzeri L, Strowitzki T Reduced pelvic pain in women with endometriosis: effi cacy of long-term dienogest treatment. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012; 285: 167–173.

Proctor M, Murphy PA Herbal and dietary therapies for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 2: CD002124.

Proctor ML, Smith CA, Farquhar CM, Stones RW Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 1: CD002123.

Proctor ML, Latthe PM, Farquhar CM, Khan KS, Johnson NP Surgical interruption of pelvic nerve pathways for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 4: CD001896.

Proctor M, Hing W, Johnson TC, Murphy PA, Brown J Spinal manipulation for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3: CD002119.

Proctor M, Murphy PA, Pattison HM, Suckling JA, Farquhar C Behavioural interventions for dysmenorrhoea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD002248.

Reilly SJ, Stewart AW, Prentice LR, Johnson NP The IVF-LUBE trial: lipiodol uterine bathing eff ect for enhancing the results of in vitro fertilisation, a pilot randomised trial. 11th World Congress on Endometriosis. 2011.

Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classifi cation of endometriosis: 1996. Fertil Steril 1997; 67: 817–821.

Rickes D, Nickel I, Kropf S, Kleinstein J Increased pregnancy rates after ultralong postoperative therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in patients with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2002; 78: 757–762.

Roman JD Adolescent endometriosis in the Waikato region of New Zealand – a comparative cohort study with a mean follow up time of 2.6 years. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2010; 50: 579–583.

Sallam HN, Garcia-Velasco JA, Dias S, Arici A Long-term pituitary down-regulation before in vitro fertilization (IVF) for women with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD004635.

Sayasneh A, Tsivos D, Crawford R Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol2011; 2011: 1403–1410.

Schlaff WD, Carson SA, Luciano A, Ross D, Bergqvist A Subcutaneous injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with leuprolide acetate in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Fertil Steril2006; 85: 314–325.

Schweppe KW, Ring D Peritoneal defects and the development of endometriosis in relation to the timing of endoscopic surgery during the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 2002; 78: 763–766.

Selak V, Farquhar C, Prentice A, Singla A Danazol for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD000068.

Seracchioli R, Mabrouk M, Frascà C, Manuzzi L, Montanari G, Keramyda A, Venturoli S Long-term cyclic and continuous oral contraceptive therapy and endometrioma recurrence: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril2010; 93: 52–56.

Sesti F, Pietropolli A, Capozzolo T, Broccoli P, Pierangeli S, Bollea MR, Piccione E Hormonal suppression treatment or dietary therapy versus placebo in the control of painful symptoms after conservative surgery for endometriosis stage III-IV. A randomized comparative trial. Fertil Steril 2007; 88: 1541–1547.

Sesti F, Capozzolo T, Pietropolli A, Marziali M, Bollea MR, Piccione E Recurrence rate of endometrioma after laparoscopic cystectomy: a comparative

randomized trial between post-operative hormonal suppression treatment or dietary therapy vs. placebo. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009; 147: 72–77.

Shakiba K, Bena JF, McGill KM, Minger J, Falcone T Surgical treatment of endometriosis: a 7-year follow-up on the requirement for further surgery. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111: 1285–1292.

Simoens S, Hummelshoj L, D’Hooghe T Endometriosis: cost estimates and methodological perspective. Hum Reprod Update 2007; 13: 395–404.

Simoens S, Dunselman G, Dirksen C, Hummelshoj L, Bokor A, Brandes I, Brodszky V, Canis M, Colombo GL, DeLeire T et al. The burden of endometriosis: costs and quality of life of women with endometriosis and treated in referral centres. Hum Reprod 2012; 27: 1292–1299.

Soliman S, Daya S, Collins J, Jarrell J A randomized trial of in vitro fertilization versus conventional treatment for infertility. Fertil Steril 1993; 59: 1239–1244.

Somigliana E, Berlanda N, Benaglia L, Viganò P, Vercellini P, Fedele L Surgical excision of endometriomas and ovarian reserve: a systematic review on serum antimüllerian hormone level modifi cations. Fertil Steril2012; 98: 1531–1538.

Spitz IM Clinical utility of progesterone receptor modulators and their eff ect on the endometrium. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2009; 21: 318–324.

Stephansson O, Kieler H, Granath F, Falconer H Endometriosis, assisted reproduction technology and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 2341–2347.

Stepniewska A, Pomini P, Scioscia M, Mereu L, Ruff o G, Minelli L Fertility and clinical outcome after bowel resection in infertile women with endometriosis. Reprod Biomed Online 2010; 20: 602–609.

Stratton P, Berkley KJ Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis: translational evidence of the relationship and implications. Hum Reprod Update 2011; 17: 327–346.

Stratton P, Sinaii N, Segars J, Koziol D, Wesley R, Zimmer C, Winkel C, Nieman LK Return of chronic pelvic pain from endometriosis after raloxifene treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111: 88–96.

Streuli I, de Ziegler D, Gayet V, Santulli P, Bijaoui G, de Mouzon J, Chapron C In women with endometriosis anti-Mullerian hormone levels are decreased only in those with previous endometrioma surgery. Hum Reprod2012; 27: 3294–3303.

Strowitzki T, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Seitz C Dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2010a; 151: 193–198.

Strowitzki T, Marr J, Gerlinger C, Faustmann T, Seitz C Dienogest is as eff ective as leuprolide acetate in treating the painful symptoms of endometriosis: a 24-week, randomized, multicentre, open-label trial. Hum Reprod2010b; 25: 633–641.

Strowitzki T, Marr J, Gerlinger C, Faustmann T, Seitz C Detailed analysis of a randomized, multicenter, comparative trial of dienogest versus leuprolide acetate in endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012; 117: 228–233.

Struthers RS, Nicholls AJ, Grundy J, Chen T, Jimenez R, Yen SS, Bozigian HP Suppression of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist elagolix. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 545–551.

Subit M, Gantt P, Broce M, Seybold D, Randall D Endometriosis associated infertility: double intrauterine insemination improves fecundity in patients positive for antiendometrial antibodies. Am J Reprod Immunol2011; 66: 100–107.

Tanahatoe SJ, Lambalk CB, Hompes PGThe role of laparoscopy in intrauterine insemination: a prospective randomized reallocation study. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 3225–3230.

Tsolakidis D, Pados G, Vavilis D, Athanatos D, Tsalikis T, Giannakou A, Tarlatzis BC The impact on ovarian reserve after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy versus three-stage management in patients with endometriomas: a prospective randomized study. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 71–77.

Tummon I, Asher L, Martin J, Tulandi T Randomized controlled trial of superovulation and insemination for infertility associated with minimal or mild endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1997; 68: 8–12.

Vercellini P, Pietropaolo G, De Giorgi O, Daguati R, Pasin R, Crosignani PG Reproductive performance in infertile women with rectovaginal endometriosis: is surgery worthwhile? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195: 1303–1310.

Vercellini P, Somigliana E, Viganò P, De Matteis S, Barbara G, Fedele L The eff ect of second-line surgery on reproductive performance of women with recurrent endometriosis: a systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009; 88: 1074–1082.

Vercellini P, Giussy B, Somigliana E, Bianchi S, Abbiati A, Fedele L Comparison of contraceptive ring and patch for the treatment of symptomatic endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2010; 93: 2150–2161.

Vercellini P, Crosignani P, Somigliana E, Viganò P, Frattaruolo MP, Fedele L Waiting for Godot: a commonsense approach to the medical treatment of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2011; 26: 3–13.

Vercellini P, De Matteis S, Somigliana E, Buggio L, Frattaruolo MP, Fedele L Long-term adjuvant therapy for the prevention of postoperative endometrioma recurrence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2013; 92: 8–16.

Wright J, Lotfallah H, Jones K, Lovell D A randomized trial of excision versus ablation for mild endometriosis.Fertil Steril 2005; 83: 1830–1836.

Wykes CB, Clark TJ, Khan KS Accuracy of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of endometriosis: a systematic quantitative review. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 111: 1204–1212.

Yeung P Jr., Sinervo K, Winer W, Albee RB Jr. Complete laparoscopic excision of endometriosis in teenagers: is postoperative hormonal suppression necessary? Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1909–1912.

Yu HT, Huang HY, Soong YK, Lee CL, Chao A, Wang CJ Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy of endometriomas: surgeons’ experience may aff ect ovarian reserve and live-born rate in infertile patients with in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010; 152: 172–175.

Zhu X, Proctor M, Bensoussan A, Wu E, Smith CA Chinese herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 2: CD005288.

Zhu X, Hamilton KD, McNicol ED Acupuncture for pain in endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2011; 9: CD007864.


GOST Style Citations


Abbott J, Hawe J, Hunter D, Holmes M, Finn P, Garry R Laparoscopic excision of endometriosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: 878–884.

Abou-Setta AM, Al-Inany HG, Farquhar CM Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for symptomatic endometriosis following surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 4: CD005072.

Adamson GD Endometriosis classifi cation: an update. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2011; 23: 213–220.

Adamson GD, Pasta DJ Endometriosis fertility index: the new, validated endometriosis staging system. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 1609–1615.

Adamson GD, Kennedy SH, Hummelshoj L Creating solutions in endometriosis: global collaboration through the World Endometriosis Research Foundation. J Endometriosis 2010; 2: 3–6.

Al-Jefout M, Dezarnaulds G, Cooper M, Tokushige N, Luscombe GM, Markham R, Fraser IS Diagnosis of endometriosis by detection of nerve fi bres in an endometrial biopsy: a double blind study. Hum Reprod2009; 24: 3019–3024.

Al Kadri H, Hassan S, Al-Fozan HM, Hajeer A Hormone therapy for endometriosis and surgical menopause.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD005997.

Allen C, Hopewell S, Prentice A, Gregory D Nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs for pain in women with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 2: CD004753.

Aygen MA, Atakul T, Oner G, Ozgun MT, Sahin Y, Ozturk F A prospective trial comparing letrozole versus gonadotropins for ovulation induction in patients with histologically documented endometriosis. Hum Reprod2010; 25 (S1): 6.

Barnhart K, Dunsmoor-Su R, Coutifaris C Eff ect of endometriosis on in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril2002; 77: 1148–1155.

Barri PN, Coroleu B, Tur R, Barri-Soldevila PN, Rodríguez I Endometriosis-associated infertility: surgery and IVF, a comprehensive therapeutic approach. Reprod Biomed Online 2010; 21: 179–185.

Bayoglu TY, Dilbaz B, Altinbas SK, Dilbaz S Postoperative medical treatment of chronic pelvic pain related to severe endometriosis: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 492–496.

Benschop L, Farquhar C, Van der Poel N, Heineman MJ Interventions for women with endometrioma prior to assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 11: CD008571.

Biacchiardi CP, Piane LD, Camanni M, Deltetto F, Delpiano EM, Marchino GL, Gennarelli G, Revelli ALaparoscopic stripping of endometriomas negatively aff ects ovarian follicular reserve even if performed by experienced surgeons. Reprod Biomed Online 2011; 23: 740–746.

Bianchi PH, Pereira RM, Zanatta A, Alegretti JR, Motta EL, Serafi ni PC Extensive excision of deep infi ltrative endometriosis before in vitro fertilization signifi cantly improves pregnancy rates. J Minim Invasive Gynecol2009; 16: 174–180.

Bokor A, Kyama CM, Vercruysse L, Fassbender A, Gevaert O, Vodolazkaia A, De Moor B, Fülöp V, D’Hooghe T Density of small diameter sensory nerve fi bres in endometrium: a semi–invasive diagnostic test for minimal to mild endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 3025–3032.

Brosens I, Brosens JJ, Fusi L, Al-Sabbagh M, Kuroda K, Benagiano G Risks of adverse pregnancy outcome in endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 30–35.

Brown J, Pan A, Hart RJ Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues for pain associated with endometriosis.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 12: CD008475.

Brown J, Kives S, Akhtar M Progestagens and anti-progestagens for pain associated with endometriosis.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 3: CD002122.

Bush D Endometriosis New Zealand–a national organisation pivotal to facilitating the wellness of women. World Endometriosis Soc eJournal 2009; 11: 6–9.

Chapron C, Fritel X, Dubuisson JB Fertility after laparoscopic management of deep endometriosis infi ltrating the uterosacral ligaments. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 329–332.

Cosson M, Querleu D, Donnez J, Madelenat P, Koninckxz P, Audebert A, Manhes HDienogest is as eff ective as triptorelin in the treatment of endometriosis after laparoscopic surgery: results of a prospective, multicenter, randomized study. Fertil Steril 2002; 77: 684–692.

Costello MF Systematic review of the treatment of ovulatory infertility with clomiphene citrate and intrauterine insemination. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;44:93–102.

Crosignani PG, Luciano A, Ray A, Bergqvist A Subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate versus leuprolide acetate in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Hum Reprod 2006; 21: 248–256.

Davis L, Kennedy SS, Moore J, Prentice A Modern combined oral contraceptives for pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD001019.

de Ziegler D, Gayet V, Aubriot FX, Fauque P, Streuli I, Wolf JP, de Mouzon J, Chapron C Use of oral contraceptives in women with endometriosis before assisted reproduction treatment improves outcomes. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 2796–2799.

D’Hooghe T, Hummelshoj L Multi-disciplinary centres/networks of excellence for endometriosis management and research: a proposal. Hum Reprod 2006; 21: 2743–2748.

D’Hooghe TM, Denys B, Spiessens C, Meuleman C, Debrock S Is the endometriosis recurrence rate increased after ovarian hyperstimulation? Fertil Steril 2006; 86: 283–290.

Donnez J, Squiffl et J Complications, pregnancy and recurrence in a prospective series of 500 patients operated on by the shaving technique for deep rectovaginal endometriotic nodules. Hum Reprod 2010; 25: 1949–1958.

Dovey S, Sanfi lippo J Endometriosis and the adolescent. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2010; 53: 420–428.

Fagervold B, Jenssen M, Hummelshoj L, Moen MH Life after a diagnosis with endometriosis – a 15 years follow-up study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009; 88: 914–919.

Farmer JE, Prentice A, Breeze A, Ahmad G, Duff y JMN, Watson A, Pick A Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues for endometriosis: bone mineral density. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD001297.

Fernando S, Breheny S, Jaques AM, Halliday JL, Baker G, Healy D Preterm birth, ovarian endometriomata, and assisted reproduction technologies. Fertil Steril 2009; 91: 325–330.

Ferrero S, Anserini P, Abbamonte LH, Ragni N, Camerini G, Remorgida V Fertility after bowel resection for endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2009; 92: 41–46.

Ferrero S, Gillott DJ, Venturini PL, Remorgida V Use of aromatase inhibitors to treat endometriosis-related pain symptoms: a systematic review. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011; 9: 89.

Flower A, Liu JP, Lewith G, Little P, Li Q Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 5: CD006568.

Ford J, English J, Miles WA, Giannopolous T Pain, quality of life and complications following the radical resection of rectovaginal endometriosis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 111: 353–356.

French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, Reggars JW, Esterman AJ Superfi cial heat or cold for low back pain.Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD004750

Furness S, Yap C, Farquhar C, Cheong YC Pre and post-operative medical therapy for endometriosis surgery.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD003678.

Giudice LC Clinical practice: endometriosis. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 2389–2398.

Guo SW Recurrence of endometriosis and its control. Hum Reprod Update 2009; 15: 441–461.

Guo SW, Hummelshoj L, Olive DL, Bulun SE, D’Hooghe TM, Evers JL A call for more transparency of registered clinical trials on endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 1247–1254.

Guo SW, He W, Zhao T, Liu X, Zhang T Clinical trials and trial-like studies on the use of traditional Chinese medicine to treat endometriosis. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol 2010; 5: 533–555.

Guo SW, Liu M, Shen F, Liu X Use of mifepristone to treat endometriosis: a review of clinical trials and trial-like studies conducted in China. Womens Health 2011; 7: 51–70.

Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ GRADE Working Group. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ2008; 336: 924–926.

Guzick DS, Huang LS, Broadman BA, Nealon M, Hornstein MD Randomized trial of leuprolide versus continuous oral contraceptives in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1568–1573.

Harada T, Momoeda M, Taketani Y, Hoshiai H, Terakawa N Low-dose oral contraceptive pill for dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Fertil Steril 2008; 90: 1583–1588.

Harada T, Momoeda M, Taketani Y, Aso T, Fukunaga M, Hagino H, Terakawa N Dienogest is as eff ective as intranasal buserelin acetate for the relief of pain symptoms associated with endometriosis—a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2009; 91: 675–681.

Hart RJ, Hickey M, Maouris P, Buckett W Excisional surgery versus ablative surgery for ovarian endometriomata.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 2: CD004992.

Healey M, Ang WC, Cheng C Surgical treatment of endometriosis: a prospective randomized double-blinded trial comparing excision and ablation. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 2536–2540.

Hughes E, Brown J, Collins JJ, Farquhar C, Fedorkow DM, Vanderkerchove P Ovulation suppression for endometriosis for women with subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD000155.

Jacobson TZ, Duff y JM, Barlow D, Koninckx PR, Garry R Laparoscopic surgery for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 4: CD001300.

Jacobson TZ, Duff y JM, Barlow D, Farquhar C, Koninckx PR, Olive D Laparoscopic surgery for subfertility associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 1: CD001398.

Johnson NP, Farquhar CM, Hadden WE, Suckling J, Yu Y, Sadler L The FLUSH trial—fl ushing with lipiodol for unexplained (and endometriosis-related) subfertility by hysterosalpingography: a randomized trial. Hum Reprod2004; 19: 2043–2051.

Kennedy S, Bergqvist A, Chapron C, D’Hooghe T, Dunselman G, Greb R, Hummelshoj L, Prentice A, Saridogan E ESHRE Special Interest Group for Endometriosis and Endometrium Guideline Development Group. ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 2698–2704.

Köhler G, Faustmann TA, Gerlinger C, Seitz C, Mueck AO A dose-ranging study to determine the effi cacy and safety of 1, 2, and 4mg of dienogest daily for endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010; 108: 21–25.

Koninckx PR, Timmermans B, Meuleman C, Penninckx F Complications of CO2-laser endoscopic excision of deep endometriosis. Hum Reprod 1996; 11: 2263–2268.

Koninckx PR, Craessaerts M, Timmerman D, Cornillie F, Kennedy S Anti-TNF-alpha treatment for deep endometriosis-associated pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hum Reprod 2008; 23: 2017–2023.

Koninckx PR, Ussia A, Adamyan L, Wattiez A, Donnez J Deep endometriosis: defi nition, diagnosis, and treatment. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 564–571.

Koppan A, Hamori J, Vranics I, Garai J, Kriszbacher I, Bodis J, Rebek-Nagy G, Koppan M Pelvic pain in endometriosis: painkillers or sport to alleviate symptoms? Acta Physiol Lung 2010; 97: 234–239.

Kroon B, Johnson N, Chapman M, Yazdani A, Hart R Australasian CREI Consensus Expert Panel on Trial evidence (ACCEPT) group. Fibroids in infertility–consensus statement from ACCEPT (Australasian CREI Consensus Expert Panel on Trial evidence). Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2011; 51: 289–295.

Laschke MW, Menger MD Anti-angiogenetic treatment strategies for the therapy of endometriosis. Hum Reprod Update 2012;18:682–702.

Laufer MR, Goitein L, Bush M, Cramer DW, Emans SJ Prevalence of endometriosis in adolescent girls with chronic pelvic pain not responding to conventional therapy. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 1997;10:199–202.

Lessey DA Assessment of endometrial receptivity. Fertil Steril 2011;96:522–529.

Liu X, Guo SW A pilot study on the off -label use of valproic acid to treat adenomyosis. Fertil Steril 2008; 89: 246–250.

Lu D, Song H, Li Y, Clarke J, Shi G Pentoxifylline for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2012; 1: CD007677.

Lucas P Cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain. J Psychoactive Drugs 2012; 44: 125–133.

Maubon A, Faury A, Kapella M, Pouquet M, Piver P Uterine junctional zone at magnetic resonance imaging: a predictor of in vitro fertilization implantation failure. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2010; 36: 611–618.

May KE, Conduit-Hulbert SA, Villar J, Kirtley S, Kennedy SH, Becker CM Peripheral biomarkers of endometriosis: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update 2010; 16: 651–674.

Mier-Cabrera J, Genera-Garcia M, De la Jara-Diaz J, Perichart-Perera O, Vadillo-Ortega F, Hernandez-Guerrero C Eff ect of vitamins C and E supplementation on peripheral oxidative stress markers and pregnancy rate in women with endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008; 100: 252–256.

Moen MH, Rees M, Brincat M, Erel T, Gambacciani M, Lambrinoudaki I, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Tremollieres F, Vujovic S, Rozenberg S European Menopause and Andropause Society. EMAS position statement: Managing the menopause in women with a past history of endometriosis. Maturitas 2010; 67: 94–97.

Momoeda M, Harada T, Terakawa N, Aso T, Fukunaga M, Hagino H, Taketani Y Long-term use of dienogest for the treatment of endometriosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2009; 35: 1069–1076.

Moravek MB, Ward EA, Lebovic DI Thiazolidinediones as therapy for endometriosis: a case series. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2009; 68: 167–170.

Mutihir JT, Nyango DD Massive haemoperitoneum from endometriosis masquerading as ruptured ectopic pregnancy: case report. Niger J Clin Pract 2010; 13: 477–479.

Nnoaham K, Hummelshoj L, Webster P, D’Hooghe T, de Cicco Nardone F, de Cicco Nardone C, Jenkinson C, Kennedy SH, Zondervan KT World Endometriosis Research Foundation Global Study of Women. Impact of endometriosis on quality of life and work productivity: A multi-centre study across 10 

Nnoaham KE, Hummelshoj L, Kennedy SH, Jenkinson C, Zondervan KT World Endometriosis Research Foundation Women. Developing symptom-based predictive models of endometriosis as a clinical screening tool: results from a multicenter study. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 692–701.

Pabona JM, Simmen FA, Nikiforov MA, Zhuang D, Shankar K, Velarde MC, Zelenko Z, Giudice LC, Simmen RC Krüppel-like factor 9 and progesterone receptor coregulation of decidualizing endometrial stromal cells: implications for the pathogenesis of endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: E376-E392.

Pearce CL, Templeman C, Rossing MA, Lee A, Near AM, Webb PM, Nagle CM, Doherty JA, Cushing-Haugen KL, Wicklund KG et al. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 385–394.

Pellicano M, Bramante S, Guida M, Bifulco G, Di Spiezio Sardo A, Cirillo D, Nappi C Ovarian endometrioma: postoperative adhesions following bipolar coagulation and suture. Fertil Steril 2008; 89: 796–799.

Petraglia F, Hornung D, Seitz C, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Luisi S, Lazzeri L, Strowitzki T Reduced pelvic pain in women with endometriosis: effi cacy of long-term dienogest treatment. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012; 285: 167–173.

Proctor M, Murphy PA Herbal and dietary therapies for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 2: CD002124.

Proctor ML, Smith CA, Farquhar CM, Stones RW Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 1: CD002123.

Proctor ML, Latthe PM, Farquhar CM, Khan KS, Johnson NP Surgical interruption of pelvic nerve pathways for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 4: CD001896.

Proctor M, Hing W, Johnson TC, Murphy PA, Brown J Spinal manipulation for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3: CD002119.

Proctor M, Murphy PA, Pattison HM, Suckling JA, Farquhar C Behavioural interventions for dysmenorrhoea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3: CD002248.

Reilly SJ, Stewart AW, Prentice LR, Johnson NP The IVF-LUBE trial: lipiodol uterine bathing eff ect for enhancing the results of in vitro fertilisation, a pilot randomised trial. 11th World Congress on Endometriosis. 2011.

Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classifi cation of endometriosis: 1996. Fertil Steril 1997; 67: 817–821.

Rickes D, Nickel I, Kropf S, Kleinstein J Increased pregnancy rates after ultralong postoperative therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in patients with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2002; 78: 757–762.

Roman JD Adolescent endometriosis in the Waikato region of New Zealand – a comparative cohort study with a mean follow up time of 2.6 years. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2010; 50: 579–583.

Sallam HN, Garcia-Velasco JA, Dias S, Arici A Long-term pituitary down-regulation before in vitro fertilization (IVF) for women with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD004635.

Sayasneh A, Tsivos D, Crawford R Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol2011; 2011: 1403–1410.

Schlaff WD, Carson SA, Luciano A, Ross D, Bergqvist A Subcutaneous injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with leuprolide acetate in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Fertil Steril2006; 85: 314–325.

Schweppe KW, Ring D Peritoneal defects and the development of endometriosis in relation to the timing of endoscopic surgery during the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 2002; 78: 763–766.

Selak V, Farquhar C, Prentice A, Singla A Danazol for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD000068.

Seracchioli R, Mabrouk M, Frascà C, Manuzzi L, Montanari G, Keramyda A, Venturoli S Long-term cyclic and continuous oral contraceptive therapy and endometrioma recurrence: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril2010; 93: 52–56.

Sesti F, Pietropolli A, Capozzolo T, Broccoli P, Pierangeli S, Bollea MR, Piccione E Hormonal suppression treatment or dietary therapy versus placebo in the control of painful symptoms after conservative surgery for endometriosis stage III-IV. A randomized comparative trial. Fertil Steril 2007; 88: 1541–1547.

Sesti F, Capozzolo T, Pietropolli A, Marziali M, Bollea MR, Piccione E Recurrence rate of endometrioma after laparoscopic cystectomy: a comparative
randomized trial between post-operative hormonal suppression treatment or dietary therapy vs. placebo. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009; 147: 72–77.

Shakiba K, Bena JF, McGill KM, Minger J, Falcone T Surgical treatment of endometriosis: a 7-year follow-up on the requirement for further surgery. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111: 1285–1292.

Simoens S, Hummelshoj L, D’Hooghe T Endometriosis: cost estimates and methodological perspective. Hum Reprod Update 2007; 13: 395–404.

Simoens S, Dunselman G, Dirksen C, Hummelshoj L, Bokor A, Brandes I, Brodszky V, Canis M, Colombo GL, DeLeire T et al. The burden of endometriosis: costs and quality of life of women with endometriosis and treated in referral centres. Hum Reprod 2012; 27: 1292–1299.

Soliman S, Daya S, Collins J, Jarrell J A randomized trial of in vitro fertilization versus conventional treatment for infertility. Fertil Steril 1993; 59: 1239–1244.

Somigliana E, Berlanda N, Benaglia L, Viganò P, Vercellini P, Fedele L Surgical excision of endometriomas and ovarian reserve: a systematic review on serum antimüllerian hormone level modifi cations. Fertil Steril2012; 98: 1531–1538.

Spitz IM Clinical utility of progesterone receptor modulators and their eff ect on the endometrium. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2009; 21: 318–324.

Stephansson O, Kieler H, Granath F, Falconer H Endometriosis, assisted reproduction technology and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 2341–2347.

Stepniewska A, Pomini P, Scioscia M, Mereu L, Ruff o G, Minelli L Fertility and clinical outcome after bowel resection in infertile women with endometriosis. Reprod Biomed Online 2010; 20: 602–609.

Stratton P, Berkley KJ Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis: translational evidence of the relationship and implications. Hum Reprod Update 2011; 17: 327–346.

Stratton P, Sinaii N, Segars J, Koziol D, Wesley R, Zimmer C, Winkel C, Nieman LK Return of chronic pelvic pain from endometriosis after raloxifene treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111: 88–96.

Streuli I, de Ziegler D, Gayet V, Santulli P, Bijaoui G, de Mouzon J, Chapron C In women with endometriosis anti-Mullerian hormone levels are decreased only in those with previous endometrioma surgery. Hum Reprod2012; 27: 3294–3303.

Strowitzki T, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Seitz C Dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2010a; 151: 193–198.

Strowitzki T, Marr J, Gerlinger C, Faustmann T, Seitz C Dienogest is as eff ective as leuprolide acetate in treating the painful symptoms of endometriosis: a 24-week, randomized, multicentre, open-label trial. Hum Reprod2010b; 25: 633–641.

Strowitzki T, Marr J, Gerlinger C, Faustmann T, Seitz C Detailed analysis of a randomized, multicenter, comparative trial of dienogest versus leuprolide acetate in endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012; 117: 228–233.

Struthers RS, Nicholls AJ, Grundy J, Chen T, Jimenez R, Yen SS, Bozigian HP Suppression of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist elagolix. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 545–551.

Subit M, Gantt P, Broce M, Seybold D, Randall D Endometriosis associated infertility: double intrauterine insemination improves fecundity in patients positive for antiendometrial antibodies. Am J Reprod Immunol2011; 66: 100–107.

Tanahatoe SJ, Lambalk CB, Hompes PGThe role of laparoscopy in intrauterine insemination: a prospective randomized reallocation study. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 3225–3230.

Tsolakidis D, Pados G, Vavilis D, Athanatos D, Tsalikis T, Giannakou A, Tarlatzis BC The impact on ovarian reserve after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy versus three-stage management in patients with endometriomas: a prospective randomized study. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 71–77.

Tummon I, Asher L, Martin J, Tulandi T Randomized controlled trial of superovulation and insemination for infertility associated with minimal or mild endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1997; 68: 8–12.

Vercellini P, Pietropaolo G, De Giorgi O, Daguati R, Pasin R, Crosignani PG Reproductive performance in infertile women with rectovaginal endometriosis: is surgery worthwhile? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195: 1303–1310.

Vercellini P, Somigliana E, Viganò P, De Matteis S, Barbara G, Fedele L The eff ect of second-line surgery on reproductive performance of women with recurrent endometriosis: a systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009; 88: 1074–1082.

Vercellini P, Giussy B, Somigliana E, Bianchi S, Abbiati A, Fedele L Comparison of contraceptive ring and patch for the treatment of symptomatic endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2010; 93: 2150–2161.

Vercellini P, Crosignani P, Somigliana E, Viganò P, Frattaruolo MP, Fedele L Waiting for Godot: a commonsense approach to the medical treatment of endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2011; 26: 3–13.

Vercellini P, De Matteis S, Somigliana E, Buggio L, Frattaruolo MP, Fedele L Long-term adjuvant therapy for the prevention of postoperative endometrioma recurrence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2013; 92: 8–16.

Wright J, Lotfallah H, Jones K, Lovell D A randomized trial of excision versus ablation for mild endometriosis.Fertil Steril 2005; 83: 1830–1836.

Wykes CB, Clark TJ, Khan KS Accuracy of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of endometriosis: a systematic quantitative review. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 111: 1204–1212.

Yeung P Jr., Sinervo K, Winer W, Albee RB Jr. Complete laparoscopic excision of endometriosis in teenagers: is postoperative hormonal suppression necessary? Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1909–1912.

Yu HT, Huang HY, Soong YK, Lee CL, Chao A, Wang CJ Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy of endometriomas: surgeons’ experience may aff ect ovarian reserve and live-born rate in infertile patients with in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010; 152: 172–175.

Zhu X, Proctor M, Bensoussan A, Wu E, Smith CA Chinese herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 2: CD005288.

Zhu X, Hamilton KD, McNicol ED Acupuncture for pain in endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2011; 9: CD007864.

 





DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2013.12.66-88

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2411-1295 (Online), ISSN 2309-4117 (Print)