Protection of reproductive health: international and national experience




reproductive health, public health, infertility, legal regulation, abortion, contraception, pandemic threat


Objectives: consideration at the scientific level of the problem of the nation’s reproductive health protection in the context of international regulation and individual national experience.
Materials and methods. The statistical method and the author’s survey method were used for the collection and effective processing of public information. 200 women and 100 men aged 21 to 45 were selected as respondents. It was used a direct interview with respondents. The survey was conducted in Kyiv, Lviv, and Volyn regions in 2020–2022. International monitoring reports, global and national statistics, doctrinal developments of scientists of foreign countries (among them Great Britain, China, USA) were also used.
Results. The main causes of impaired human reproductive health are: environmental, socio-economic (unresolved issues of abortion and proper contraception, violence against women and children) and medical problems. In Ukraine, neither specialized legislative acts nor bylaws contain a comprehensive strategy for the protection of reproductive health, which causes gaps in the legal regulation and social security of this area. Gender discrimination is a widespread phenomenon in our country. We must state the discriminatory situations and oppression of both sexes in the reproductive sphere. There are no systematic mechanisms for the prevention of this problem, and the attention of state legal, scientific and public institutions to this problem is insufficient.
Conclusions. Legal policy in the field of reproductive health needs a complementary approach and renewal of strategic understanding at the level of the state legal policy. Only comprehensive consideration of reproductive health problems in Ukraine can ensure their solution. Reproductive counseling should be proactive and encouraged because its implementation is beneficial for the patient’s mental health, quality of life, and adherence to treatment. Providing reproductive health education improves knowledge, attitudes and practices in the field of human reproduction.

Author Biographies

I.M. Zharovska, Institute of Jurisprudence, Psychology and Innovative Education, National University “Lviv Polytechnic”, Lviv

SJD, professor, Department of Theory of Law and Сonstitutionalism

M.M. Blikhar, Institute of Jurisprudence, Psychology and Innovative Education, National University “Lviv Polytechnic”, Lviv

SJD, professor, Department of Administrative and Informational Law

R.M. Matkivska, O.O. Bogomolets National Medical University Ukraine, Kyiv

PhD, associate professor, Department of Descriptive and Clinical Anatomy

L.A. Cherkasova, O.O. Bogomolets National Medical University Ukraine, Kyiv

PhD, associate professor, Department of Radiology and Radiation Medicine


  1. Duff, J., et al. “А global public health convention for the 21st century.” Lancet Public Health 6.6 (2021): e428–e433. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00070-0
  2. United Nations Population Fund. “Programme of action аdapted at the international conference on population and development”, Cairo (5–13 September 1994): 178 p.
  3. UN General Assembly. Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2015). Available from: [ documents/21252030].
  4. World Health Organization. Infertility. Overview (2022). Available from: [].
  5. National Health Commission of China. Statistical Bulletin of National Health Development in China (2019). Available from: [ s10748/202006/ebfe31f24cc145b198dd730603ec4442.shtml].
  6. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Fundamentals of Ukrainian legislation on health care: Law of Ukraine dated 11/19/1992 No. 2801-XII. Database “Legislation of Ukraine”. Available from: [ show/2801-12#Text].
  7. Blikhar, M., Zharovska, I., Shandra, B., Zaiats, O. “Legal relations in the field of human reproductive activity.” Reproductive Endocrinology 63–64 (2022): 97–104. DOI: 10.18370/2309-4117.2022.63.97-104
  8. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. On the approval of the State Program “Reproductive Health of the Nation” for the period up to 2015: Resolution of the CMU dated 12.27.2006 No. 1849. Database “Legislation of Ukraine”. Available from: [ show/1849-2006-п#Text].
  9. Mitchell, K.R., Ruth, L., O’Sullivan, L., Fortenberry, J.D. “What is sexual wellbeing and why does it matter for public health?” Lancet Public Health 6.8 (2021): e608–e613. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00099-2
  10. Sutton, M.Y., Anachebe, N.F., Lee, R., Skanes, H. “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive Health Services and Outcomes, 2020.” Obstet Gynecol 137.2 (2021): 225–33. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004224
  11. Yao, H., Chan, C.H.Y., Hou, Y., Chan, L.W.C. “Ambivalence experienced by infertile couples undergoing IVF: a qualitative study.” Hum Fertil (2022): 1–13. DOI: 10.1080/14647273.2022.2099314
  12. Datta, J., Palmer, M.J., Tanton, C., et al. “Prevalence of infertility and help seeking among 15000 women and men.” Hum Reprod 31 (2016): 2108–18. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dew123
  13. Cairo Consensus Workshop Group. “The current status and future of andrology: a consensus report from the Cairo workshop group.” Andrology 8 (2020): 27–52. DOI: 10.1111/andr.12720
  14. Minhas, S., et al. “European Association of Urology Guidelines on Male Sexual and Reproductive Health: 2021 Update on Male Infertility.” European Urology 80.5 (2021): 603–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2021.08.014
  15. Sansone, A., Mollaioli, D., Ciocca, G., et al. “Addressing male sexual and reproductive health in the wake of COVID-19.” Endocrinol Invest 44 (2021): 223–31. DOI: 10.1007/s40618-020-01350-1
  16. Barratt, C.L.R., De Jonge, C.J., Anderson, R.A., et al. “A global approach to addressing the policy, research and social challenges of male reproductive health.” Hum Reprod Open 1 (2021): hoab009. DOI: 10.1093/hropen/hoab009
  17. Gumerova, E., De Jonge, C., Barratt, C. Research funding for male reproductive health and infertility in the UK and USA [2016–2019], Dryad, Dataset (2022). DOI: 10.5061/dryad.v9s4mw6wc
  18. National Library of Ukraine named after V.I. Vernadskyi. Databases. Available from: [].
  19. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. The concept of communication in the field of gender equality: Order of the CMU of September 16, 2020 No. 1128. Database “Legislation of Ukraine”. Available from: [ ua/laws/show/1128-2020-р#Text].
  20. Fucic, A., Duca, R.C., Galea, K.S., et al. “Reproductive Health Risks Associated with Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Pesticides.” Int J Environ Res Public Health 18.12 (2021): 6576. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18126576
  21. Tarapore, P., Ouyang, B. “Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health: Do PFOA and PFOS Increase Risk for Male Infertility?” Int J Environ Res Public Health 18.7 (2021): 3794. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073794
  22. Caporossi, L., Vigano, P., Paci, E., et al. “Female Reproductive Health and Exposure to Phthalates and Bisphenol A: A Cross Sectional Study.” Toxics 9.11 (2021): 299. DOI: 10.3390/toxics9110299
  23. Ganatra, B., Gerdts, C., Rossier, C., et al. “Global, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010-14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model.” Lancet 390.10110 (2017): 2372–81. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31794-4.
  24. Upadhyay, U.D., Koenig, L.R., Meckstroth, K.R. “Safety and Efficacy of Telehealth Medication Abortions in the US During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” JAMA Netw Open 4(8) (2021): e2122320. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22320
  25. UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2017 – Children in a Digital World. Available from: [ state-worlds-children-2017].
  26. Ontiri, S., Mutea, L., Naanyu, V., et al. “A qualitative exploration of contraceptive use and discontinuation among women with an unmet need for modern contraception in Kenya.” Reprod Health 18.33 (2021). DOI: 10.1186/s12978-021-01094-y
  27. Solo, J., Festin, M. “Provider bias in family planning services: a review of its meaning and manifestations.” Global Health: Science and Practice 7.3 (2019): 371–85. DOI: 10.9745/GHSP-D-19-00130
  28. World Health Organization. Understanding and addressing violence against women (2021). Available from: [ handle/10665/77434/-WHO_RHR_12.37_eng.pdf;jsessionid =5AA122953AD9CDA4013FF402789C7FA3?sequence=1].
  29. Alkan, O., Tekmanlı, H.H. “Determination of the factors affecting sexual violence against women in Turkey: a population-based analysis.” BMC Women’s Health 21.1 (2021): 188. DOI: 10.1186/s12905-021-01333-1
  30. World Health Organization. Responding to children and adolescents who have been sexually abused: WHO clinical guidelines (2017). Available from: [ le/10665/259270/9789241550147-eng.pdf].
  31. Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. Kateryna Pavlichenko: Domestic violence is no longer silenced. Facebook page. January 13, 2022. Available from: [https://m. id=100064369764525].
  32. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): violence against women (2021). Available from: [https://www.who. int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/ question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/ coronavirus-disease-covid-19-violence-against-women].
  33. Bitenga, A.A., Rutega, B., Byamungu, P.A., et al. “A man never cries: barriers to holistic care for male survivors of sexual violence in eastern DRC.” Medicine, Conflict and Survival 38.2 (2022): 116–39.
  34. Touquet, H., Schulz, P. “Navigating vulnerabilities and masculinities: How gendered contexts shape the agency of male sexual violence survivors.” Security Dialogue 52.3 (2021): 213–30. DOI: 10.1177/0967010620929176
  35. Steshenko, А. Dozens of proceedings have been opened in Ukraine regarding sexual crimes by the Russian military. June 3, 2022. Available from: [ ukraini_vidkrili_desyatki.html].
  36. Qiao, J., Wang, Y., Li, X., et al. “Commission on 70 years of women’s reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health in China.” 397 (2021): 2497–536. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32708-2
  37. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Adopting a Sexual Health Paradigm. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press (2021). DOI: 10.17226/25955
  38. Allotey, J., et al. “Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis.” BMJ 370 (2020). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m3320
  39. Kassie, A., Wale, A., Worke, Y. “Impact of Coronavirus Diseases-2019 (COVID-19) on Utilization and Outcome of Reproductive, Maternal, and Newborn Health Services at Governmental Health Facilities in South West Ethiopia, 2020: Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.” Int J Womens Health 13 (2021): 479–88. DOI: 10.2147/IJWH.S309096
  40. Podolskyi, V., Antypkin, Y., Podolskyi, V., et al. “Medical and social factors of the possibility of spreading coronavirus infection among fertile aged women.” Reproductive Endocrinology 61 (2021): 8–14. DOI: 10.18370/2309-4117.2021.61.8-14
  41. Chow, E.F., Hocking, J.S., Ong, J.J., et al. “Sexually Transmitted Infection Diagnoses and Access to a Sexual Health Service Before and After the National Lockdown for COVID-19 in Melbourne, Australia.” Infectious Diseases 8.1 (2021): ofaa536. DOI: org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa536
  42. Girometti, N., Byrne, R., et al. “Demographic and clinical characteristics of confirmed human monkeypox virus cases in individuals attending a sexual health centre in London, UK: an observational analysis.” Lancet Infectious Diseases 22.8 (2022): 1091. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00411-X



How to Cite

Zharovska, I., Blikhar, M. ., Matkivska, R., & Cherkasova, L. (2022). Protection of reproductive health: international and national experience. REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (66), 109–117.



Health care