Fetal growth retardation as a complication of post-COVID endotheliitis: causes, consequences, ways of prevention
Keywords:pregnancy, coronavirus disease, complications, post-COVID endotheliitis, fetal growth retardation, placental dysfunction, endothelium, nitric oxide, L-carnitine, sorbitol, prevention
The risk of fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is increased in women who have experienced acute infections, as well as in pregnant women with gynecological pathology and endocrine diseases. A woman’s lack of nutrition also makes a negative contribution to the development of IUGR. The frequency of IUGR in the population is very variable and depends on a number of reasons. In practically healthy pregnant women, IUGR is registered in 3–5% of cases, in case of complicated obstetric and gynecological diagnosis and complicated pregnancy – in 10–25%.
Morphofunctional disorders in the chorion/placenta in pregnant women with COVID-19 on the background of post-covid endotheliitis are the main pathogenetic factor in the development of preeclampsia, ectopic pregnancy, antenatal fetal death, and impaired condition of the fetus and newborns. Sufficient saturation of the pregnant woman’s body with the nitric oxide donor L-arginine and L-carnitine (main cofactor of fatty acid metabolism in cells) with the improvement of microcirculation and the correction of hypovolemic disorders in the fetoplacental complex can be considered one of the real ways to prevent IUGR in women in the post-covid period.
A review of the scientific literature on pathogenesis, diagnosis, impact on the life and health of a newborn with IUGR in women after COVID-19, as well as the possibilities of medical correction of placental dysfunction during pregnancy was performed.
This analysis and our own clinical experience allow us to state the fact that after a coronavirus infection during pregnancy, one of the frequent and threatening for the further development of the child is the formation of placental dysfunction and IUGR. One of the ways to prevent these conditions is to saturate the woman’s body with the nitric oxide donor L-arginine from the stage of pre-gravid preparation, which will provide the opportunity for adequate angiogenesis and development of the embryo/fetus. In the case of additional risk factors, such as coronavirus disease, complex therapy blood (Rheosorbilact), in combination with a nitric oxide donor and L-carnitine as an endothelium-protective agent (Tivor-L).
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