Estrogen-associated regulation of the bone tissue remodeling

В. В. Поворознюк, Н. А. Резниченко, Э. А. Майлян

Abstract


The important role of an estrogen in a bone tissue metabolism regulation is proved. Irrefutable evidence of estrogen direct influence on bone tissue cell function through estrogen receptors is obtained. As a result of estrogen linking with the receptors, an estrogen is capable to activate tens of genes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The result of foregoing is the increase of osteoblasts and osteocytes functional activity, and also increase of the osteoclasts apoptosis and the osteoclastogenesis inhibition. Finally, these properties of the estrogen predetermine their protective role against the bone resorption.


Keywords


Menopause; estrogens; estrogen receptors; osteoblasts; osteoclasts; osteoporosis

References


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9. Krum SA, Miranda-Carboni GA, Hauschka PV [et al.] Estrogen protects bone by inducing Fas ligand in osteoblasts to regulate osteoclast survival // EMBO J. – 2008. – № 3. – Р. 535–345.

10. Monroe DG, Secreto FJ, Hawse JR [et al.] Estrogen receptor isoform-specific regulation of the retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) gene: roles of AF1 and enhancer elements // J. Biol. Chem. – 2006.–№ 39. – P. 28596–28604.

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12. Heldring N, Pike A, Andersson S [et al.] Estrogen receptors: how do they signal and what are their targets // Physiol. Rev. – 2007. – № 3. – Р. 905–931.

13. Feng X, McDonald JM Disorders of Bone Remodeling // Annu. Rev. Pathol. – 2011. – № 6. – Р. 121–145.

14. Gorski J The nature and development of steroid hormone receptors // Experientia. – 1986. – № 3. – P. 744–749.

15. Hammes SR , Levin ER Extranuclear Steroid Receptors: Nature and Actions// Endocrine Reviews. – 2007. – № 7. – Р. 726–741.

16.Simsa-Maziel S, Zaretsky J, Reich A [et al.] IL-1RI participates in normal growth plate development and bone modeling // Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2013. – №1.– Р. 15–21.

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18. Krum SA, Cell J Direct transcriptional targets of sex steroid hormones in bone\ Biochem. – 2011. – № 2. – Р. 401–408.

19. Levin ER Rapid signaling by steroid receptors // American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. – 2008. – № 5. – Р. 1425–1430.

20. Rudnik V, Sanyal A, Syed FA [et al.] Loss of ERE binding activity by estrogen receptor-alpha alters basal and estrogen-stimulated bone-related gene expression by osteoblastic cells // J. Cell. Biochem. – 2008. – № 3. – Р. 896-907.

21. Marie PJ, Kassem M Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation // The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. – 2011.–№ 3. – Р. 600–609.

22. McEwan IJ Nuclear receptors: one big family // Methods Mol. Biol. – 2009. – V.505. – P. 3–18.

23. Nilsson S, S. Mäkelä S, Treuter E [et al.] Mechanisms of estrogen action // Physiol. Rev. – 2001. – № 4. – Р. 1535–1565.

24. Ng KW Potential role of odanacatib in the treatment of osteoporosis // Clin. Interv. Aging. – 2012.–№ 7. – 235–247.

25.Imai Y, Youn M-Y, Inoue K [et al.] Nuclear Receptors in Bone Physiology and Diseases // Physiol. Rev. – 2013. – № 2. – Р. 481–523.

26. Boyce BF, Yao Z, Xing L Osteoclasts have Multiple Roles in Bone in Addition to Bone Resorption // Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. – 2009. – № 3. – Р. 171–180.

27. Heino TJ, Hentunen TA, Väänänen HK, Cell J Osteocytes inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption through transforming growth factor-beta: enhancement by estrogen / Biochem. – 2002. – № 1 – Р. 185–197.

28. Albright F, Bloomberg E, Smith PH Postmenopausal osteoporosis // Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians. – 1940. – V. 55. – P. 298–305.

29. Rachner TD, Khosla S, Hofbauer LC Osteoporosis: now and the future // Lancet. – 2011. – № 9. – Р. 1276–1287.

30. Shen Q, Zhu S, Hu J [et al.] Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4)-stimulated cell differentiation and bone formation within the expanding calvarial suture in rats // J. Craniofac. Surg. – 2009. – № 5. – Р. 1561–1565.

31. Chen JQ, Cammarata PR, Baines CP [et al.] Regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain biogenesis by estrogens/estrogen receptors and physiological, pathological and pharmacological implications // Biochim Biophys Acta. – 2009. – № 10. – Р. 1540–1570.

32. Reinwald S, Burr D Review of Nonprimate, Large Animal Models for Osteoporosis Research // J. Bone Miner. Res. – 2008. – № 9. – Р. 1353–1368.

33. Bhandari M, Sprague S, Schemitsch EH[et al.] Resolving Controversies in Hip Fracture Care: The Need for Large Collaborative Trials in Hip Fractures // J. Orthop. Trauma. – 2009. – № 6. – Р. 479–484.

34. Faulds MH, Zhao C, Dahlman-Wright K [et al.] The diversity of sex steroid action: regulation of metabolism by estrogen signaling // J Endocrinol. – 2012. – № 1. – Р. 3–12.

35. Ayaloglu-Butun F, Terzioglu-Kara E Tokcaer-Keskin Z [et al.] The effect of estrogen on bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell maintenance: inhibiting apoptosis through the expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 // Stem. Cell. Rev. – 2012. – № 2. – Р. 393–401.

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37.Mauvais-Jarvis F, Clegg DJ, Hevener AL The role of estrogens in control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis // Endocr. Rev. – 2013 – № 34. – P. 309–338.

38. Denger S, Bähr-Ivacevic T, Brand H [et al.] Transcriptome profiling of estrogen-regulated genes in human primary osteoblasts reveals an osteoblast-specific regulation of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 gene // Mol. Endocrinol. – 2008. – № 2. – Р. 361–379.

39. Wend K, Wend P, Krum SA Tissue-Specific Effects of Loss of Estrogen during Menopause and Aging // Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). – 2012 –P. 3–19.

40. Zallone A Direct and indirect estrogen actions on osteoblasts and osteoclasts // Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. – 2006. – V. 1068. – P. 173–179.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2014.15.14-18

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