Mastоpathy is a biomarker of hormonal distress. Literature review
Keywords:mammary gland, hormonal diseases, progesterone, Progestogel
Mastopathy is an extensive heterogeneous group of the mammary glands pathologies, varying in its manifestations and in degree of breast cancer risk. The prevalence of mastopathy in female population is 60–80%, and this pathology has an age-related epidemiological features. On the background of gynecological diseases benign breast diseases occur in 76–97.8% of women. Frequency of mastopathy is reduced with the onset of menopause, while the risk of malignant transformation increases. Breast tissue has a high concentration of cytosolic tissue receptors to steroid compounds, so like other organs of women’s reproductive system it is susceptible to 15 hormones. Estrogen concentration in the breast connective tissue in 2–20 times higher than in blood plasma. Decisive role in the emergence of breast pathology belongs not to the absolute concentrations of hormones in blood plasma, but condition of sex steroids receptors in breast tissue. Mastodynia is a reflection of functional changes and response of breast tissue to hormonal imbalance. Proliferative mastopathy without atypia and with atypia significantly increase the risk of breast cancer. Progesterone deficiency is a key factor in the pathogenesis of dishormonal breast diseases.
For timely prevention, early diagnosis of breast diseases and breast cancer, prognosis and treatment tactics, mammography, MRI and ultrasound of the gland are used, as well as various biological markers (tissue, cellular and molecular) determination, steroid hormone receptors, various growth factors and their receptors are evaluated.
The timely appointment of transdermal gel Progestogel® eliminates mastodynia and other symptoms of mastopathy, and is pathogenetic treatment, which prevents the transition of functional disorders into morphological in mammary glands, reduces mammographic breast density, and thus reduces oncology risk.
Thus, prevention, early diagnosis, timely pathogenetic treatment of dishormonal breast diseases reduces the risk of breast cancer.
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