The reproductive and somatic health of servicewomen and those who are in the military area in armed conflict


  • І. А. Лурін President Administration; Presidium of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • І. П. Хоменко Medical Service, chief of the Main Military Medical Directorate; Medical Service of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • О. Я. Назаренко Gynecological Clinic of South Region Military Medical Clinical Center, Odesa, Ukraine
  • К. Д. Дейнюк SI “O.M. Lukyanova Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine



war zone, female military personnel, stress-induced diseases, sexually transmitted infections


The number of women choosing a military career given the current state of Ukraine experiencing military aggression by Russia and the positive changes in society and legislation that allow women to choose any profession, is increasing every year.

Purpose of the study. To study the structure of somatic and gynecological pathology in female military personnel worldwide and to compare it with our own experience.

Materials and methods. 316 medical histories of female military personnel who received in-patient treatment from 2014 to 2018 in military hospitals in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, Vinnitsa and Odessa were analyzed.

Results and discussion. Authors’ findings indicate that in the morbidity structure of women in military service predominate benign diseases of the pelvic organs, such as uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory diseases. This is matches to the literature data, and is a direct result of two military-related issues of being in a war zone is chronic stress and sexually transmitted infections.

Conclusions. Although the health status of women military has not been sufficiently studied, both in the world and in the Ukrainian scientific literature, study authors identified that gynecological pathology is expected to be dominated by stress-induced diseases such as uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory diseases due to lack of awareness of sexually transmitted infections prevention methods.

Ukrainian specialists must be prepared for the long-term effects of military stress and living conditions in the war zone, anticipate the spectrum of morbidity and be able to provide comprehensive assistance to the fullest extent. Today the only way to prevent these diseases is through screening before joining the army and in the service, as well as training military doctors on specific aspects of women's health, and women-military self-examination and basic self-diagnosis

Author Biographies

І. А. Лурін, President Administration; Presidium of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv

MD, professor, corresponding member of the NAMS of Ukraine, major-general of Medical Service, head of the Health Department;

advisor to the Minister of defense, head of the Freelance Department of Military Medical Science at the Presidium of the NAMS of Ukraine

І. П. Хоменко, Medical Service, chief of the Main Military Medical Directorate; Medical Service of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Kyiv

MD, corresponding member of NAMS of Ukraine, major-general;


О. Я. Назаренко, Gynecological Clinic of South Region Military Medical Clinical Center, Odesa

MD, head

К. Д. Дейнюк, SI “O.M. Lukyanova Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the NAMS of Ukraine”, Kyiv

Postgraduate student of the Endocrine Gynecology Department


  1. Express-online. Electronic resource of Express newspaper. “It became known how many women serve in the Ukrainian army.” (2017). Available from: [ sluzhat-ukrayinskiy-armiyi], last accessed Oct 30, 2019.
  2. Yefimenko, O.O., Deiniuk, K.D. “Influence of obesity on the development of endometrial hyperplasia in women of all ages.” Reproductive Endocrinology 4.42 (2018): 28–33. DOI: 10.18370/2309-4117.2018.42.28-33
  3. Act of Ukraine No. 2523-VIII from September 6, 2018. On Amendments to Certain Laws of Ukraine on Ensuring Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men during their Military Service in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Other Military Formations. Available from: [ ua/laws/show/2523-viii], last accessed Nov 1, 2019.
  4. Kovalyova, O.V. “Current status of women's rights in Ukraine: CEDAW assessment”. In: International means of protecting the rights and freedoms of man and citizen: materials of the All- Ukrainian scientific and practical round table. Irpin (2018): 98–102. Available from: [], last accessed Nov 1, 2019.
  5. Kotliar, A. “Anatoly Matios: ‘To prevent non-combat losses, prevention is needed.’” Electronic resource Available from: [ potribna-prevenciya-292174_.html], last accessed Oct 23, 2019.
  6. Lytovka, S.L., Ivanko, O.M., Kozhokaru, A.A., et al. “Socially dangerous diseases among servicemen as an indicator of the epidemiological situation in the country.” Problems of military health care 44.2 (2015): 226–31.
  7. Martseniuk, T., Gritsenko, G., Kvit, A. The Invisible Battalion: Women's Participation in the ATO Military Action (Sociological Study). Electronic Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Institutional Repository (2015). Available from: [], last accessed Oct 23, 2019.
  8. Trichlieb, V., Tkachuk, S., Maydanyuk, V. “Infectious diseases among military personnel in the area of anti-terrorist operation.” In: Infectious Diseases in the Practice of Internists: Current Aspects : Materials of the All-Ukrainian Scientific and Practical Conference. Sumi (2016). Available from: [], last accessed Nov 1, 2019.
  9. “Poltorak told how many servicemen-women have been in the war since 2014” (2019). Available from: [ viyskovosluzhbovciv-zhinok-pobuvali-na-viyni-z-2014-roku. html], last accessed Nov 1, 2019.
  10. Afari, N., Ahumada, S.M., Wright, L.J., et al. “Psychological Trauma and Functional Somatic Syndromes.” Psychosomatic Medicine 76.1 (2014): 2–11. DOI: 10.1097/psy.0000000000000010
  11. Bean-Mayberry, B., Yano, E.M., Washington, D.L., et al. “Systematic review of women veterans’ health: update on successes and gaps.” Womens Health Issues 21 (2011): S84–97. DOI: 10.1016/j.whi.2011.04.022
  12. Bradley, C.S., Nygaard, I.E., Torner, J.C., et al. “Overactive bladder and mental health symptoms in recently deployed female veterans.” The Journal of urology 191.5 (2014): 1327–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.11.100
  13. Braun, L.A., Kennedy, H.P., Womack, J.A., et al. “Integrative Literature Review: U.S. Military Women's Genitourinary and Reproductive Health.” Military Medicine 181.1 (2016): 35–49. DOI: 10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00242
  14. Burlaka, O., Tatarchuk, T. “Non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal contraception for Ukrainian military women.” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 23 (2018): 104. DOI: 10.1080/13625187.2018.1442911
  15. Eagan, S.M. “Menstrual Suppression for Military Women.” Obstet Gynecol 134.1 (2019): 72–6. DOI: 10.1097/aog.0000000000003318
  16. Frayne, S.M., Seaver, M.R., Loveland, S., et al. “Burden of medical illness in women with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.” Arch Intern Med 164 (2004): 1306–12. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.164.12.1306
  17. Goldzweig, C.L., Balekian, T.M., Rolón, C., et al. “The state of women veterans’ health research.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 21(S3) (2006): S82–S92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00380.x
  18. Hartal, M., Kreiss, Y., Yavnai, N. “Relative longevity among retired military personnel: a historical-cohort study.” Military Medical Research 2.1 (2015). DOI: 10.1186/s40779-015-0057-y
  19. Johnson, K.M., Bradley, K.A., Bush, K., et al. “Frequency of mastalgia among women veterans.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 21.S3 (2006): S70–S75. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00378.x
  20. Krulewitch, C.J. “Reproductive Health of Active Duty Women in Medically Austere Environments.” Military Medicine 181.1 (2016): 63–9. DOI: 10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00221
  21. McGraw, K., Koehlmoos, T.P., Ritchie, E.C. "Women in combat: framing the issues of health and health research for America's servicewomen." Military medicine 181.1 (2016): 7–11. DOI: 10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00223
  22. Mitchell, K.S., Porter, B., Boyko, E.J., et al. “Longitudinal Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women.” American Journal of Epidemiology 184.1 (2016): 33–47. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwv291.
  23. Öztürk, A.B., Özenli, Y., Öztürk, S.B., et al.“The effect of psychoeducation on anxiety and pain in patients with mastalgia.” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 69.5 (2015): 380–5. DOI: 10.3109/08039488.2014.989260
  24. Patten, E., Parker, K. “Women in the US military: Growing share, distinctive profile.” Electronic resource Pew Research Center. Available from: [ in-the-u-s-military-growing-share-distinctive-profile], last accessed Nov 1, 2019.
  25. Pires, V. “Amenorrhea and high intensity training.” Endocrine Abstracts 56 (2018): 922. DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.56.P922
  26. Powell-Dunford, N.C., Cuda, A.S., Moore, J.L., et al. “Menstrual Suppression for Combat Operations: Advantages of Oral Contraceptive Pills.” Women’s Health Issues 21.1 (2011): 86–91. DOI: 10.1016/j.whi.2010.08.006
  27. Savas, L.S., White, D.L., Wieman, M., et al. “Irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia among women veterans: prevalence and association with psychological distress”. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 29.1 (2009): 115–25. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03847.x
  28. White, D.L., Savas, L.S., Daci, K. et al. “Trauma history and risk of the irritable bowel syndrome in women veterans.” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 32.4 (2010): 551–61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04387.x
  29. Yılmaz, E.M., Çelik, S., Arslan, H., et al. “Relation between Mastalgia and Anxiety in a Region with High Frequency of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.” The journal of breast health 11.2 (2015): 72–75. DOI: 10.5152/tjbh.2015.2363.
  30. Electronic resource ZN.UA. “Ukraine's Armed Forces suffer 14,000 non-combat casualties over 4 years of war - Matios.” (2018). Available from: [ vtrat-u-14-tisyach-osib-matios-282253_.html], last accessed Oct 30, 2019.



How to Cite

Лурін, І. А., Хоменко, І. П., Назаренко, О. Я., & Дейнюк, К. Д. (2019). The reproductive and somatic health of servicewomen and those who are in the military area in armed conflict. REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, (49), 78–83.



Interdisciplinary problems