DOI: https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2019.49.73-77

Features of the nutrition for the autism spectrum disorders

Г. А. Анохіна

Abstract


In most countries of the world there is a continuous increase in the number of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD is defined as a heterogeneous group of disorders of the nervous system development, which have a diverse etiology, but characterized by common symptoms associated with impaired social interaction, communication and behavior, and is the result of the interaction of genetic and epigenetic factors.

Diet therapy of autism is one of the safest methods to prevent the progression of disease and improve the functional state of the central nervous system and other organs. It should be recommended that industrial products containing unwanted xenobiotics, aluminum, soy, estrogens, pesticides, sweeteners, trans fatty acids be excluded from use. The nutrition of a patient with ASD should provide the body with the necessary energy, plastic and regulatory factors, take into account age and nutritional status.

Fatty nutrition of a pregnant and lactating woman is important. Lipids are the main structural components of the brain. The content of fatty acids in brain is much higher than in other organs. Brain is especially rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The content and ratio of individual classes of lipids significantly change during the development and differentiation of brain. These processes occur most intensively in early postnatal ontogenesis, therefore it is important to provide the pregnant woman with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. A positive effect was found in ASD diets with the exception of gluten and casein.

It is important for the prevention of ASD to provide a woman with folic acid before and during pregnancy (up to 12 weeks of pregnancy), which can prevent changes in neuro-behavioral and emotional skills. An adequate dose and form of folic acid is important. A large dose of it is as dangerous as its deficiency. An excess of folic acid leads to a decrease in the content of endogenous folates. Preference should be given to the active form of folate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, since it does not cause a blockage of folate metabolism

Keywords


autism spectrum disorders; nutrition; folates; folic acid; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

References


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Pu, D., Shen, Y., Wu, J. “Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a metaanalysis.” Autism Res 6.5 (2013): 384–92.

Qi, X., Sun, X., Xu, J., et al. “Associations between methylenetet-rahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Chinese population.” Tumour Biol 35.3 (2014): 1757–62.

Srinivasan, P. “A review of dietary interventions in autism.” Ann Clin Psychiatry 21.4 (2009): 237–47.

Owen-Smith, A.A., Bent, S., Lynch, F.L., et al. “Prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use in a large insured sample of children with autism spectrum disorders.” Res Autism Spectr Disord 17 (2015): 40–51.

Whiteley, P., Shattock, P., Knivsberg, A.M., et al. “Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.” Front Hum Neurosci 6 (2013): 344. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00344

Whiteley, P., Haracopos, D., Knivsberg, A.M., et al. “The ScanBrit randomised, controlled, single-blind study of a gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders.” Nutr Neurosci 13.2 (2010): 87–100.

Winburn, E., Charlton, J., McConachie, H., et al. “Parents’ and child health professionals’ attitudes towards dietary interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders.” J Autism Dev Disord 44.4 (2014): 747–57.

van De Sande, M.M.H., van Buul, V.J., Brouns, F.J.P.H. “Autism and nutrition: the role of the gut–brain axis.” Nutr Res Rev 27.2 (2014): 199–214. DOI: 10.1017/S0954422414000110

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44.       Pu, D., Shen, Y., Wu, J. “Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a metaanalysis.” Autism Res 6.5 (2013): 384–92.

45.       Qi, X., Sun, X., Xu, J., et al. “Associations between methylenetet-rahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Chinese population.” Tumour Biol 35.3 (2014): 1757–62.

46.       Srinivasan, P. “A review of dietary interventions in autism.” Ann Clin Psychiatry 21.4 (2009): 237–47.

47.       Owen-Smith, A.A., Bent, S., Lynch, F.L., et al. “Prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use in a large insured sample of children with autism spectrum disorders.” Res Autism Spectr Disord 17 (2015): 40–51.

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49.       Whiteley, P., Haracopos, D., Knivsberg, A.M., et al. “The ScanBrit randomised, controlled, single-blind study of a gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders.” Nutr Neurosci 13.2 (2010): 87–100.

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52.       Zhang, J., Mayton, M.R., Wheeler, J.J. “Effectiveness of gluten-free and casein-free diets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: an evidence-based research synthesis.” Educ Train Autism Dev Disabil 48.2 (2013): 276–87.

53.       Tatarchuk, T., Zakharenko, N., Bachynska, I., Kosei, N. “On the issue of autoimmune ovary damage during puberty.” Georgian medical news 279 (2018): 49–56.





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