DOI: https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2019.48.8-12

Early termination of menstrual function: modern views on pathogenesis and consequences

І. Б. Венцківська, О. С. Загородня, Т. Т. Наритник

Abstract


One of the problems of modern endocrine gynecology is the increase in the number of women living in the peri-menopausal and post-menopausal period, therefore the study of the climacteric syndrome pathogenesis is of considerable interest to scientists. Separate issues are the problem of early termination of menstrual function, which can be based on both spontaneous and surgically induced ovarian stops. The article presents modern and evidentiary data concerning the pathogenetic factors of early ovarian exhaustion, such as genetic, infectious, social factors, bad habits. Particular attention is paid to the possible iatrogenic factors of premature cessation of menstrual function, such as the use of oral combined contraceptives and chemotherapy for oncological diseases. Actually, the views of oral contraceptives have done fundamental changes over the last decade, from the protective effect of gonadotropic hormone synthesis inhibition on the maintenance of the ovarian reserve to the current perception it as a damaging factor.

Theories of the development of changes in extragenital organs and systems with timely and premature menopause are identified, namely, the time theory and the theory of the critical window. The actual data concerning the characteristics of the menopausal period in patients with early termination of menstrual function, in particular, the more rapid development of atherosclerosis, lipid regulation disorders, osteoporosis and its complications, are given. The mechanisms of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk of in the case of early cessation of menstrual function are discussed – a sharp imbalance of lipid metabolism with an level up of the atherogenic lipoproteins fractions, estrogen-dependent suppression of fibrinolysis, endothelial disfunction.

The greater tendency of women with early menopause to develop depression is emphasized. The actual tension of waiting for or excluding the diagnosis of early menopause, which completes the period of young self-perception of a woman, exacerbates hormonal disorders. Most of all the duration of cyclic estrogen exposure determines the risk of depression developing, but there is also a dependence on ethnicity, the severity of vasomotor symptoms, smoking, and excess body weight. From these perspectives, early cessation of menstrual function is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal depression.


Keywords


early menopause; premature ovary failure; early termination of menstrual function

References


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Freeman, E.W. “Depression in the menopause transition: risks in the changing hormone milieu as observed in the general population.” Women's Midlife Health 1 (2015): 56–59. DOI 10.1186/s40695-015-0002-y

Fenton, A. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management.” Journal of Mid-life Health V6I4 (2015): 147–53.

Park, Y.K., Cha, N.H., Sok, S.R. “Relationships between menopausal syndrome and sleeping of middle-aged women.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 27.8 (2015): 2537–40.

Podfigurna-Stopa, A., Czyzyk, A., Grymowicz, M., et al. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: the context of long-term effects.” Endocrinol Invest 39.9 (2016): 983–90. DOI: 10.1007/s40618-016-0467-z

Welt, C.K. “Primary ovarian insufficiency: a more accurate term for premature ovarian failure.” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 68 (2008): 499–509.

Maclaran, K., Panay, N. “Current Concepts in Premature Ovarian Insufficiency.” Womens Health 11.2 (2015): 169–82.

Jones, G.S., de Moraes-Ruehsen, M. “A new syndrome of amenorrhea in association with hypergonadotropism and apparently normal ovarian follicular apparatus.” Am J Obstet Gynecol 104 (1969): 597–600.

Кim, M.H. “’Gonadotropin-resistant ovaries’ syndrome in association with secondary amenorrhea.” Am J Obstet Gynecol 120 (1974): 257–63.

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Sinha, P., Kuruba, N. “Premature ovarian failure.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 27 (2007): 16–19.

Sharief, M., Alharoon, D.S., Mohammed, H.T. “Inhibin B as a Marker for Detection of Ovarian Activity in Premature Ovarian Failure.” J Women's Health Care 7 (2018): 434. DOI:10.4172/2167-0420.100

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de Vries, E., den Tonkelaar, I., van Noord, P.A.H., et al. “Oral contraceptive use in relation to age at menopause in the DOM cohort.” Human Reproduction 16.8 (2001): 1657–62.

Richardson, S., Senikas, V., Nelson, J.“Follicular depletion during the menopausal transition: evidence for accelerated loss and ultimate exhaustion.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65 (1987): 1231–7.

Jankowska, K. “Premature ovarian failure.” Menopause Rev 16.2 (2017): 51–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5114/pm.2017.68592

Sharief, M., Alharoon, D., Mohammed, H. “Inhibin B as a Marker for Detection of Ovarian Activity in Premature Ovarian Failure.” J Women's Health Care 7 (2018): 434. DOI: 10.4172/2167-0420.100

Chand, A., Harrison, C., Shelling, A. “Inhibin and premature ovarian failure.” Hum Reprod Update 16.1 (2010): 39–50. DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmp031.

Luisi, S., Orlandini, C., Regini, C., et al. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: From pathogenesis to clinical management.” J Endocrinol Invest 38 (2015): 597–603.

Pastore, L.M., Johnson, J. “The FMR1 gene, infertility, and reproductive decision-making: A review.” Front Genet 5 (2014): 195.

Archer, D. “Premature menopause increases cardiovascular risk.” Climacteric 12 Suppl 1 (2009): 26–31.

Luborsky, J., Meyer, P., Sowers, F., et al. “Premature menopause in a multi‐ethnic population study of the menopause transition.” Human Reproduction 17.1 (2003): 199–206. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/deg005

Hudson, M.M. “Reproductive outcomes for survivors of childhood cancer.” Obstet Gynecol 116 (2010): 1171–83.

Atabekoglu, C., Taskin, S., Kahraman, K., et al. “The effect of total abdominal hysterectomy on serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels: A pilot study.” Climacteric 15 (2012): 393-7.

Saraç, F., Öztekin, K., Çelebi, G. “Early menopause association with employment, smoking, divorced marital status and low leptin levels.” Menopause 22 (2010): 273–8.

Ohl, J., Partisani, M., Demangeat, C., et al. “Alterations of ovarian reserve tests in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women.” Gynecol Obstet Fertil 38 (2010): 313–7.

Colafrancesco, S., Perricone, C., Tomljenovic, L., et al. “Human papilloma virus vaccine and primary ovarian failure: another facet of the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants.” Am J Reprod Immunol 70 (2013): 309–16.

Benetti-Pinto, C., Castro, N., da Rocha, O., Mendes, H. “Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in women with premature ovarian failure and age- and weight-matched women with normal menstrual cycles.” Menopause 17.1 (2010): 174–7. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181b00dad

Kalantaridou, S., Vanderhoof, V., Calis, K., et al. “Sexual function in young women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency.” Fertil Steril 90.5 (2008): 1805–11.

Gallicchio, L., Miller, S.R., Viscanathan, K., et al. “Cigarette smoking, estrogen levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.” Maturitas 53 (2005): 133–43.

Schilling, C., Gallicchio, L., Miller, S., et al. “Current alcohol use, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.” Fertil Steril 87.6 (2007): 1483–6.

Su, I., Freeman, E. “Hormone changes associated with the menopausal transition.” Minerva Ginecol 61.6 (2009): 483–9.

Torrealday, S., Kodaman, P., Pal, L. “Premature Ovarian Insufficiency - an update on recent advances in understanding and management.” F1000Research 6 (2017): 2069. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.11948.1

Marsh, W., Bromberger, J., Crawford, C., Leung, K. “Lifelong estradiol exposure and risk of depressive symptoms during the transition to menopause and postmenopause.” Menopause 24.12 (2017): 1351–9.

Faubion, S.S., Kuhle, C.L., Shuster, L.T., Rocca, W.A. “Long-term health consequences of premature or early menopause and considerations for management.” Climacteric 18 (2015): 483–91.

Wellons, M., Ouyang, P., Schreiner, P.J., et al. “Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.” Menopause 19 (2012): 1081–7.

Gulhan, I., Bozkaya, G., Uyar, I., et al. “Serum lipid levels in women with premature ovarian failure.” Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society 19.11 (2012): 1231–4.

Vesco, K.K., Marshall, L.M., Nelson, H.D., et al. “Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.” Menopause 19 (2012): 510–6.

Blume, S.W., Curtis, J.R. “Medical costs of osteoporosis in the elderly Medicare population.” Osteoporosis International 22.6 (2011): 1835–44. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1419-7

Podfigurna-Stopa, A., Czyzyk, A., Grymowicz, M., et al. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: the context of long-term effects.” J Endocrinol Invest 39.9 (2016): 983–90. DOI: 10.1007/s40618-016-0467-z

Gibson-Helm, M., Teede, H., Vincent, A. “Symptoms, health behavior and understanding of menopause therapy in women with premature menopause.” Climacteric 17.6 (2014): 666–73. DOI: 10.3109/13697137.2014.913284

Clarkson, T. “NAMS endowed lecture: estrogen effects on arteries vary with stage of reproductive life and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis progression.” Menopause 14 (2007): 373–84.

Clarkson, T., Kaplan, J., Shively, C., Klein, K. “Benefits of exogenous oestrogen in inhibiting stress-related coronary artery atherosclerosis.” Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103 Suppl 13 (1996): 73–8.

Bairey Merz, C.N., Johnson, B.D., Sharaf, B.L., et al. “Hypoestrogenemia of hypothalamic origin and coronary artery disease in premenopausal women: a report from the NHLBI-sponsored WISE study.” J Am Coll Cardiol 41 (2003): 413–9.

Mikkola, T., Clarkson, B. “Estrogen replacement therapy, atherosclerosis, and vascular function.” Cardiovascular Research 53.3 (2002): 605–19. DOI: 10.1016/S0008-6363(01)00466-7

Suzuki, S., Brown, C.M., Dela Cruz, C.D., et al. “Timing of estrogen therapy after ovariectomy dictates the efficacy of its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104 (2007): 6013–8.


GOST Style Citations


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2.         Freeman, E.W.  “Depression in the menopause transition: risks in the changing hormone milieu as observed in the general population.” Women's Midlife Health 1 (2015): 56–59. DOI 10.1186/s40695-015-0002-y

3.         Fenton, A. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management.” Journal of Mid-life Health V6I4 (2015): 147–53.

4.         Park, Y.K., Cha, N.H., Sok, S.R. “Relationships between menopausal syndrome and sleeping of middle-aged women.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 27.8 (2015): 2537–40.

5.         Podfigurna-Stopa, A., Czyzyk, A., Grymowicz, M., et al. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: the context of long-term effects.” Endocrinol Invest 39.9 (2016): 983–90. DOI: 10.1007/s40618-016-0467-z

6.         Welt, C.K. “Primary ovarian insufficiency: a more accurate term for premature ovarian failure.” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 68 (2008): 499–509.

7.         Maclaran, K., Panay, N. “Current Concepts in Premature Ovarian Insufficiency.” Womens Health 11.2 (2015): 169–82.

8.         Jones, G.S., de Moraes-Ruehsen, M. “A new syndrome of amenorrhea in association with hypergonadotropism and apparently normal ovarian follicular apparatus.” Am J Obstet Gynecol 104 (1969): 597–600.

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15.       Richardson, S., Senikas, V., Nelson, J.“Follicular depletion during the menopausal transition: evidence for accelerated loss and ultimate exhaustion.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65 (1987): 1231–7.

16.       Jankowska, K. “Premature ovarian failure.” Menopause Rev 16.2 (2017): 51–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5114/pm.2017.68592

17.       Sharief, M., Alharoon, D., Mohammed, H. “Inhibin B as a Marker for Detection of Ovarian Activity in Premature Ovarian Failure.” J Women's Health Care 7 (2018): 434. DOI: 10.4172/2167-0420.100

18.       Chand, A., Harrison, C., Shelling, A. “Inhibin and premature ovarian failure.” Hum Reprod Update 16.1 (2010): 39–50. DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmp031.

19.       Luisi, S., Orlandini, C., Regini, C., et al. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: From pathogenesis to clinical management.” J Endocrinol Invest 38 (2015): 597–603.

20.       Pastore, L.M., Johnson, J. “The FMR1 gene, infertility, and reproductive decision-making: A review.” Front Genet 5 (2014): 195.

21.       Archer, D. “Premature menopause increases cardiovascular risk.” Climacteric 12 Suppl 1 (2009): 26–31.

22.       Luborsky, J., Meyer, P., Sowers, F., et al. “Premature menopause in a multi‐ethnic population study of the menopause transition.” Human Reproduction  17.1 (2003): 199–206. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/deg005

23.       Hudson, M.M. “Reproductive outcomes for survivors of childhood cancer.” Obstet Gynecol 116 (2010): 1171–83.

24.       Atabekoglu, C., Taskin, S., Kahraman, K., et al. “The effect of total abdominal hysterectomy on serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels: A pilot study.” Climacteric 15 (2012): 393-7.

25.       Saraç, F., Öztekin, K., Çelebi, G. “Early menopause association with employment, smoking, divorced marital status and low leptin levels.” Menopause 22 (2010): 273–8.

26.       Ohl, J., Partisani, M., Demangeat, C., et al. “Alterations of ovarian reserve tests in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women.” Gynecol Obstet Fertil 38 (2010): 313–7.

27.       Colafrancesco, S., Perricone, C., Tomljenovic, L., et al. “Human papilloma virus vaccine and primary ovarian failure: another facet of the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants.” Am J Reprod Immunol 70 (2013): 309–16.

28.       Benetti-Pinto, C., Castro, N., da Rocha, O., Mendes, H. “Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in women with premature ovarian failure and age- and weight-matched women with normal menstrual cycles.” Menopause 17.1 (2010): 174–7. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181b00dad

29.       Kalantaridou, S., Vanderhoof, V., Calis, K., et al. “Sexual function in young women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency.” Fertil Steril 90.5 (2008): 1805–11.

30.       Gallicchio, L., Miller, S.R., Viscanathan, K., et al. “Cigarette smoking, estrogen levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.” Maturitas 53 (2005): 133–43.

31.       Schilling, C., Gallicchio, L., Miller, S., et al. “Current alcohol use, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.” Fertil Steril 87.6 (2007): 1483–6.

32.       Su, I., Freeman, E. “Hormone changes associated with the menopausal transition.” Minerva Ginecol 61.6 (2009): 483–9.

33.       Torrealday, S., Kodaman, P., Pal, L. “Premature Ovarian Insufficiency - an update on recent advances in understanding and management.” F1000Research 6 (2017): 2069. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.11948.1

34.       Marsh, W., Bromberger, J., Crawford, C., Leung, K. “Lifelong estradiol exposure and risk of depressive symptoms during the transition to menopause and postmenopause.” Menopause 24.12 (2017): 1351–9.

35.       Faubion, S.S., Kuhle, C.L., Shuster, L.T., Rocca, W.A. “Long-term health consequences of premature or early menopause and considerations for management.” Climacteric 18 (2015): 483–91.

36.       Wellons, M., Ouyang, P., Schreiner, P.J., et al. “Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.” Menopause 19 (2012): 1081–7.

37.       Gulhan, I., Bozkaya, G., Uyar, I., et al. “Serum lipid levels in women with premature ovarian failure.” Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society 19.11 (2012): 1231–4.

38.       Vesco, K.K., Marshall, L.M., Nelson, H.D., et al. “Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.” Menopause 19 (2012): 510–6.

39.       Blume, S.W., Curtis, J.R. “Medical costs of osteoporosis in the elderly Medicare population.” Osteoporosis International 22.6 (2011): 1835–44. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1419-7

40.       Podfigurna-Stopa, A., Czyzyk, A., Grymowicz, M., et al. “Premature ovarian insufficiency: the context of long-term effects.” J Endocrinol Invest 39.9 (2016): 983–90. DOI: 10.1007/s40618-016-0467-z

41.       Gibson-Helm, M., Teede, H., Vincent, A. “Symptoms, health behavior and understanding of menopause therapy in women with premature menopause.” Climacteric 17.6 (2014): 666–73. DOI: 10.3109/13697137.2014.913284

42.       Clarkson, T. “NAMS endowed lecture: estrogen effects on arteries vary with stage of reproductive life and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis progression.” Menopause 14 (2007): 373–84.

43.       Clarkson, T., Kaplan, J., Shively, C., Klein, K. “Benefits of exogenous oestrogen in inhibiting stress-related coronary artery atherosclerosis.” Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103 Suppl 13 (1996): 73–8.

44.       Bairey Merz, C.N., Johnson, B.D., Sharaf, B.L., et al. “Hypoestrogenemia of hypothalamic origin and coronary artery disease in premenopausal women: a report from the NHLBI-sponsored WISE study.” J Am Coll Cardiol 41 (2003): 413–9.

45.       Mikkola, T., Clarkson, B. “Estrogen replacement therapy, atherosclerosis, and vascular function.” Cardiovascular Research 53.3 (2002): 605–19. DOI: 10.1016/S0008-6363(01)00466-7

46.       Suzuki, S., Brown, C.M., Dela Cruz, C.D., et al. “Timing of estrogen therapy after ovariectomy dictates the efficacy of its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104 (2007): 6013–8.




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