DOI: https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2018.39.65-67

The role of the docosahexaenoic acid in nutrition of pregnant and feeding women

Н. М. Шилина

Abstract


The article presents information about the properties and functions of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid belonging to the ω-3 fatty acid family. DHA, along with the arachidonic acid, is the basic building material for cell membranes of the brain and the visual analyzer. During an active growth of the fetus and baby – in the third trimester of gestation and during breastfeeding – DHA is a conditionally essential fatty acid for the baby and should be provided through the placenta and with maternal breast milk in adequate quantities, which is possible only if the organism of a pregnant and feeding woman has sufficient supply of this fatty acid.

According to the recommendations of the international scientific community, women should consume not less than 200 mg of DHA daily during pregnancy and lactation. The evidence of research studies are given, confirming a positive effect of supplementary intake of DHA by pregnant and feeding women on the psychomotor development and visual function of their babies. Advantages of intake of ready forms of DHA by women during pregnancy and lactation have been substantiated.


Keywords


docosahexaenoic acid; pregnancy; lactation; psychomotor development; vision; Femibion Natalcare II

References


Shilina, N.M., Kon, I.Y. “Modern concepts of the physiological and metabolic functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Questions of children’s dietology 2.6 (2004): 25–30.

Uauy, R., Castillo, C. “Lipid requirements of infants: implications for nutrient composition of fortified complementary foods.” J Nutr 133 (2003): 2962–72.

Eidelman, A.I., Feldman, R. “Positive effect of human milk on neurobehavioral and cognitive development of premature infants.” Adv Exp Med Biol 554 (2004): 359–64.

Farquharson, J., Cockburn, F., Patrick, W.A. “Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet.” The Lancet 340 (1992): 810–3.

Koletzko, B., Larque, E., Demmelmair, H. “Placental transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA).” J Perinat Med 35 Suppl. 1 (2007): 5–11.

Larque, E., Krauss-Etschamnn, S., Koletzko, B., et al. “Docosahexaenoic acid supply in pregnancy affects placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins.” Am J Clin Nutr 84.4 (2006): 853–61.

Perrone, S., Salvi, G., Billieni, C.V., Buonocore, G. “Oxidative Stress and Nutrition in the preterm newborn.” J Pediatr Gastroenter Nutr 45.3 (2007): 178–82.

Carnielli, V.P., Wattimena, D.J.L., Luijendijk, I.H.T., et al. “The very low birth weight infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and linolenic acids.” Pediatr Res 40 (1996): 169–74.

Sauerwald, T.U., Hachey, D.L., Jensen, C.L., et al. “Intermediates in endogenous synthesis of C22:6ω3 and C20:4ω3 by term and preterm infants.” Pediatr Res 41 (1997): 183–7.

Carlson, S.E., Werkman, S.H., Peeples, J.M., et al. “Arachidonic acid status correlates with first year growth in preterm infants.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 (1993): 1073–7.

Makrides, M., Neumann, M.A., Byrad, R.W., et al. “Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast- and formula-fed infants.” Am J Clin Nutr 60 (1994): 189–94.

Birch, E.E., Castañeda, Y.S., Wheaton, D.H., et al. “Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo.” Am J Clin Nutr 81 (2005): 871–9.

Innis, S.M., Gilley, J., Werker, J. “Are human milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids related to visual and neural development in breast-fed term infants?” J Pediatr 139.4 (2001): 532–8.

The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Available from: [http//www.alspac.bris.ac.uk].

Jensen, C.L., Voigt, R.G., Prager, T.C., et al. “Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants.” Am J Clin Nutr 82.1 (2005): 125–32.

Bouwstra, H., Dijck-Brouwer, D.J., Decsi, T., et al. “Relationship between umbilical cord essential fatty acid content and the quality of general movements of healthy term infants at 3 months.” Ped Res 59.5 (2006): 717–22.

Helland, I.B., Smith, L., Saarem, K., et al. “Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age.” Pediatrics 111.1 (2003): 39–44.

Willatts, P., Forsyth, J.S., DiModugno, M.K., et al. “Effect of longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age.” The Lancet 352 (1998): 688–91.


GOST Style Citations


1. Шилина, Н.М. Современные представления о физиологических и метаболических функциях полиненасыщенных жирных кислот / Н.М. Шилина, И.Я. Конь // Вопросы детской диетологии. – 2004. – №2 (6). – С. 25–30.

2. Uauy, R., Castillo, C. “Lipid requirements of infants: implications for nutrient composition of fortified complementary foods.” J Nutr 133 (2003): 2962–72.

3. Eidelman, A.I., Feldman, R. “Positive effect of human milk on neurobehavioral and cognitive development of premature infants.” Adv Exp Med Biol 554 (2004): 359–64.

4. Farquharson, J., Cockburn, F., Patrick, W.A. “Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet.” The Lancet 340 (1992): 810–3.

5. Koletzko, B., Larque, E., Demmelmair, H. “Placental transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA).” J Perinat Med 35 Suppl. 1 (2007): 5–11.

6. Larque, E., Krauss-Etschamnn, S., Koletzko, B., et al. “Docosahexaenoic acid supply in pregnancy affects placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins.” Am J Clin Nutr 84.4 (2006): 853–61.

7. Perrone, S., Salvi, G., Billieni, C.V., Buonocore, G. “Oxidative Stress and Nutrition in the preterm newborn.” J Pediatr Gastroenter Nutr 45.3 (2007): 178–82.

8. Carnielli, V.P., Wattimena, D.J.L., Luijendijk, I.H.T., et al. “The very low birth weight infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and linolenic acids.” Pediatr Res 40 (1996): 169–74.

9. Sauerwald, T.U., Hachey, D.L., Jensen, C.L., et al. “Intermediates in endogenous synthesis of C22:6ω3 and C20:4ω3 by term and preterm infants.” Pediatr Res 41 (1997): 183–7.

10. Carlson, S.E., Werkman, S.H., Peeples, J.M., et al. “Arachidonic acid status correlates with first year growth in preterm infants.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 (1993): 1073–7.

11. Makrides, M., Neumann, M.A., Byrad, R.W., et al. “Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast- and formula-fed infants.” Am J Clin Nutr 60 (1994): 189–94.

12. Birch, E.E., Castañeda, Y.S., Wheaton, D.H., et al. “Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo.” Am J Clin Nutr 81 (2005): 871–9.

13. Innis, S.M., Gilley, J., Werker, J. “Are human milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids related to visual and neural development in breast-fed term infants?” J Pediatr 139.4 (2001): 532–8.

14. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Available from: [http//www.alspac.bris.ac.uk].

15. Jensen, C.L., Voigt, R.G., Prager, T.C., et al. “Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants.” Am J Clin Nutr 82.1 (2005): 125–32.

16. Bouwstra, H., Dijck-Brouwer, D.J., Decsi, T., et al. “Relationship between umbilical cord essential fatty acid content and the quality of general movements of healthy term infants at 3 months.” Ped Res 59.5 (2006): 717–22.

17. Helland, I.B., Smith, L., Saarem, K., et al. “Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age.” Pediatrics 111.1 (2003): 39–44.

18. Willatts, P., Forsyth, J.S., DiModugno, M.K., et al. “Effect of longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age.” The Lancet 352 (1998): 688–91.





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