Correction of hormonal imbalance in patients with diffuse forms of mastopathy – the basis of pathogenetic therapy and oncoprophylaxis
Keywords:breast cancer, fibro-cystic disease, progesterone, Progestogel
The physiological processes of cell division occurring in the tissues of the non-invading mammary gland (MG) are a response to the cyclic changes in the level of estrogens and progesterone released by the ovaries. Violation of the balance between estrogen and progesterone in women of reproductive age can cause dyshormonal hyperplasia of the mammary gland (DHMG). The cyclic form of mastalgia is dangerous not only for its manifestations, but also for the existence of a proven connection with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC).
In particular, in a large cohort study in France, it was shown that women who had suffered from cyclic mastalgia for more than 3 years and who had not received treatment had a 5-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared to women who did not have it. In 2016, a meta-analysis of the numerous studies was confirmed that the use of estrogen with micronized progesterone is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer compared with synthetic progestogens. It has been established that progesterone deficiency creates conditions for uncontrolled proliferation in MG tissues and promotes the development of Fibro-cystic disease (FCD).
The use of transdermal gel progesterone allows you to balance the excess effects of estrogens on MG, primarily eliminating the excess permeability of tissue capillaries, the mitotic activity of milk duct cells and the painful stretching of the MG tissue. Studies have shown that when using a gel with progesterone (Progestogel®), there is a decrease in mitotic activity in normal cells of the lobular epithelium of the MF. The antiproliferative effect of the Progestogel® is realized when it is used in a continuous mode – every day of the cycle, including the days of menstruation.
A retrospective study of the effectiveness of the use of Progestogel® in monotherapy with FCD showed that against a background of local therapy with gel with progesterone there was a statistically significant decrease and disappearance of mastalgia, mastodynia, decrease average size and number of cysts. Progestogel® with course treatment reduces the mammographic density of MG, which is also considered as an independent and extremely significant risk factor for breast cancer. The local application of the gel with progesterone makes it possible to avoid many unnecessary surgical operations to remove cysts.
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