DOI: https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2017.38.58-71

Screening for endocrine hypertension. An Endocrine Society scientific statement

William F. Young Jr., David A. Calhoun, Jacques W.M. Lenders

Abstract


Hypertension may be the initial clinical presentation for at least 15 endocrine disorders. An accurate diagnosis of endocrine hypertension provides clinicians with the opportunity to render a surgical cure or to achieve an optimal clinical response with specific pharmacologic therapy. It is challenging for the clinician to know when and how to perform case-detection testing for all the endocrine disorders in which hypertension may be the presenting symptom. Herein, we review the different forms of endocrine hypertension, with a focus on prevalence, clinical presentation, guidance on when to perform case detection testing, and currently available case-detection tests.

Hypertension affects 28.6% of adults in United States. In most, hypertension is primary (essential or idiopathic), but a subgroup of approximately 15% has secondary hypertension. More than 50% of children who present with hypertension have a secondary cause. In young adults (< 40 years old), the prevalence of secondary hypertension is approximately 30%. The secondary causes of hypertension include renal causes (e.g., renal parenchymal disease) and endocrine causes. Hypertension may be the initial clinical presentation many endocrine disorders: pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma, primary aldosteronism, hyperdeoxycorticosteronism (congenital adrenal hyperplasia – 11b-hydroxylase deficiency, 17a-hydroxylase deficiency, deoxycorticosterone-producing tumor, primary cortisol resistance), cushing syndrome, apparent mineralocorticoid excess / 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperaldosteronism, renovascular hypertension, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, obstructive sleep apnea and others.

Clinical context is important. For example, case detection for endocrine hypertension may not be clinically important in an older patient with multiple life-limiting comorbidities. However, screening for endocrine hypertension may be key to enhancing and prolonging life in most patients with hypertension, especially younger patients.


Keywords


arterial hypertension; endocrine hypertension; Endocrine Society

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