Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

И. А. Зайцев

Abstract


A considerable number of various liver diseases that are associated with the course of pregnancy are quite common and occur at least three percent of pregnant women.

This pathology plays an important role and is one of the most important reasons for the development of a wide range of different pathologies in pregnant women, in fetuses and newborns. The problem of changing functional liver tests during pregnancy acquires special sharpness and significance in connection with the not-so-recent role of liver pathology in mortality in maternal and perinatal mortality.

In recent years, based on a large number of observations and statistical data, important information has been obtained on the details of the mechanism of this pathology, developed and refined diagnostic methods, as well as detailed schemes for treating liver diseases in pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy. Collected and scrupulously processed extensive data on the change in a variety of functional liver tests at various stages of pregnancy, both under normal and with complicated flow.

Particular attention is paid to such pathology as preeclampsia, eclampsia, acute fatty liver disease of pregnant women, HELLP syndrome, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnant women, uncontrollable vomiting of pregnant women, liver rupture, in the diagnosis of which one of the leading, decisive roles is assigned to the change in functional liver tests.

In our review, the main emphasis was made in the direction of changing various significant indicators of functional hepatic tests in pregnant women both in physiologically developing pregnancy and in various liver diseases, both as a consequence of pregnancy and not directly related to it. The article also highlights the main mechanisms of these changes. The publication provides the latest information on the timing of full or partial normalization of a wide range of functional liver tests both after delivery and in the natural course of the disease.


Keywords


functional hepatic tests; pregnancy; preeclampsia; eclampsia; acute fatty liver of pregnancy; HELLP syndrome; intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy; Hyperemesis Gravidarum; liver ruptures

References


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Garrido, N., Gil-Salom, M., Martínez-Jabaloyas, J.M., Meseguer, M. “First report of the absence of viral load in testicular sperm samples obtained from men with hepatitis C and HIV after washing and their subsequent use.” Fertil Steril 92.3 (2009): 1012–5.

Nesrine, F., Saleh, H. “Hepatitis C virus (HCV) status in newborns born to HCV positive women performing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.” Afr Health Sci 12.1 (2012): 58–62.


GOST Style Citations


1. Державна служба статистики України. Оперативні дані щодо кількості населення.

2. Гураль, А.Л. Эпидемиологические аспекты проблемы гепатитов В и С в Украине / А.Л. Гураль, В.Ф. Мариевский, Т.А. Сергеева // В кн.: «Збірник наукових праць співробітників КМАПО ім. П. Л. Шупика», Київ, 2000. – Вип. 9, книга 4. – С. 56–60.

3. Tan, J., Surti, B., Saab, S. “Pregnancy and cirrhosis.” Liver Transplant 14 (2008): 1081–91.

4. Tang, J.R., Hsu, H.Y., Lin, H.H., et al. “Hepatitis B surface antigenemia at birth: a long-term follow-up study.“ J Pediatr 133.3 (1998): 374–7.

5. Tosone, G., Maraolo, A.E., Mascolo, S., et al. “Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission: Main questions and answers.“ World J Hepatol 6.8 (2014): 538–48.

6. Dunkelberg, J.C., Berkley, E.M.F., Thiel, K.W., Leslie, K.K. ”Hepatitis B and C in Pregnancy: A Review and Recommendations for Care.” J Perinatol 34.12 (2014): 882–91.

7. ACOG Committee Opinion. “Breastfeeding and the risk of hepatitis C virus transmission.” Int J Gynaecol Obstet 66.3 (1999): 307–8.

8. European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. “A significant sex – but not elective cesarean section – effect on mother-to child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection.” J Infect Dis 193 (2005): 1872–9.

9. Valladares, G., Chacaltana, A., Sjogren, M.H. “The management of HCV-infected pregnant women.” Ann Hepatol 9 (2010): 92–7.

10. Wiseman, E., Fraser, M.A., Holden, S., et al. “Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus: an Australian experience.” Med J Aust 190.9 (2009): 489–92.

11. Han, G.R., Cao, M.K., Zhao, W., et al. “A prospective and open-label study for the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in pregnancy for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection.” J Hepatol 55 (2011): 1215–21.

12. Ghamar Chehreh, M.E., Tabatabaei, S.V., Khazanehdari, S., Alavian, S.M. “Effect of cesarean section on the risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus from HCV-RNA+/HIVmothers: a metaanalysis.” Arch Gynecol Obstet 283 (2011): 255–60.

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease.” Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report 47.RR19 (1998): 1–39.

14. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. “ACOG educational bulletin. Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Number 248, July 1998 (replaces No. 174, November 1992).” Int J Gynaecol Obstet 63.2 (1998): 195–202.

15. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. “Recommendations for reducing the risk of viral transmission during fertility treatment with the use of autologous gametes: a committee opinion.” Fertil Steril 99.2 (2013): 340–6.

16. Oger, P., Yazbeck, C., Gervais, A., et al. “Adverse effects of hepatitis B virus on sperm motility and fertilization ability during IVF.” Reprod Biomed Online 23.2 (2011): 207–12.

17. Lam, P.M., Suen, S.H., Lao, T.T., et al. “Hepatitis B infection and outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment.” Fertil Steril 93.2 (2010): 480–5.

18. Hanafi, N.F., Abo Ali, A.H., Abo el kheir, H.F. “ICSI outcome in women who have positive PCR result for hepatitis C virus.” Hum Reprod 26.1 (2011): 143–7.

19. Zhu, Y., Ma, M., Huang, J., et al. “Effects of Hepatitis C Virus Infection on Human Sperm Chromosomes.” Clin Lab 62.3 (2016): 373–9.

20. Ma, M., Zhu, Y., Wang, D., et al. “Research on the Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Gene from Father-to-child via Human Sperm.” Clin Lab 62.1–2 (2016): 1–6.

21. Garrido, N., Gil-Salom, M., Martínez-Jabaloyas, J.M., Meseguer, M. “First report of the absence of viral load in testicular sperm samples obtained from men with hepatitis C and HIV after washing and their subsequent use.” Fertil Steril 92.3 (2009): 1012–5.

22. Nesrine, F., Saleh, H. “Hepatitis C virus (HCV) status in newborns born to HCV positive women performing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.” Afr Health Sci 12.1 (2012): 58–62.





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18370/2309-4117.2017.36.104-110

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